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Dewayne L. Ingram

This presentation focuses on driving forces and philosophies in the current Age of Accountability and explores ideas of how to respond. The increased scrutiny faced by all public agencies is requiring that Cooperative Extension approach the issue of accountability a bit differently. We must articulate our objectives and values to specific clientele groups, the general public, and government officials. Hard questions are being asked about past and anticipated return on tax dollars invested in state and federal agencies. The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 requires “performance based budgeting” for all federal agencies, including the USDA. Each federal agency must develop an action plan with well-defined objectives and anticipated impacts to justify the allocation of federal funds. The overriding theme is not how busy we are and how many activities we can report, but what has been the impact of our efforts.

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Dewayne L. Ingram

The University of Kentucky's Department of Horticulture, led by the extension faculty working with targeted industry associations, facilitated the creation of the Kentucky Horticulture Council to be the voice of a diverse industry. Leadership in industry strategic planning, promoting the opportunities for expansion of the horticulture industry, and educating state agriculture, legislative and university leaders provided a focus of energy and positioned the industry to access emerging resources. Leadership development has been an anticipated byproduct of this process.

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Dewayne L. Ingram

The contributions of interrelated production system components of a field-grown, 2-m-tall, 5-cm-caliper Picea pungens (colorado blue spruce) in the upper midwestern (liner) and lower midwestern (finished tree) regions of the United States to its carbon footprint were analyzed using life cycle assessment protocols. The seed-to-landscape carbon footprint was 13.558 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), including sequestration of 9.14 kg CO2e during production. The global warming potential (GWP) from equipment use was the dominant contributor to the carbon footprint of production. Seventy-six percent of the GWP investments during field production occurred at harvest. Querying the model, among other things, revealed that adding one year to the field production phase would add less than 3% to the seed-to-landscape GWP of the product. The weighted positive impact of carbon (C) sequestration during a 50-year life was 593 kg CO2e. After its useful life, takedown and disposal would result in emissions of 148 kg CO2e, resulting in a net positive, life cycle impact on atmospheric CO2 of ≈431 kg CO2e.

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

Seeds of Sophora secundiflora (Ort.) Lag ex. DC. (mescal bean) were scarified with hot water or concentrated sulfuric acid to determine an optimal pretreatment for successful germination. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the acid scarification treatment removed the seed cuticle. One-year-old seeds were successfully stored and germinated ≈2 days sooner than from the current year if both were given an acid pretreatment. Germination rate increased as acid pretreatment time increased from 30 to 120 minutes. Soaking seeds in water at room temperature or in hot water (initially 93C) for 24 hours had no effect on germination.

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Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram

Root growth of southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary') was studied for 16 weeks after an 8-week exposure to 30, 34, 38, or 42 ± 0.8C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied for 6 hours daily. Immediately after RZT treatments, total root length of trees responded negatively to increased RZT in a quadratic pattern and the shoot and root dry weight of trees was similar. However, 8 and 16 weeks after RZT treatments, total root length responded linearly in a negative pattern to increased RZT, and shoot and root dry weight responded negatively to increased RZT in a linear and quadratic pattern, respectively. Root dry weight of trees exposed to 42C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38 and 34C RZT treatments, respectively, at week 8. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38 and 34C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks 8 and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38C treatment, whereas growth suppression by the 42C treatment was still evident after 16 weeks.

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

Ilex crenata Thunb. `Rotundifolia' split-root plants were grown for 3 weeks at root-zone temperatures of 30/30, 30/34, 30/38, 30/42, 34/34, 38/38 and 42/42. The 38 C root-zone temperature treatment was the upper threshold for a number of growth and physiological parameters. A portion of the root system grown at near optimum temperatures could compensate in terms of shoot growth for part of the root system exposed to supraoptimal root-zone temperatures up to the 38 C critical threshold. Higher root-zone temperatures did not affect photosynthetic rates or root:shoot ratios, but altered photosynthate partitioning to different stem and root sinks. Although no differences were found for total 14C partitioned to the roots, partitioning of the 14C into soluble and insoluble fractions and the magnitude of root respiration and exudation were influenced by treatment. Heating half of a root system at 38 C increased the amount of 14C respired from the heated side and increased the total CO2 respired from the non-heated (30 C) half. Exposure of both root halves to 42 C resulted in membrane damage which increased the leakage of 14C photosynthates into the medium.

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Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram

Thermal properties of pine bark: sand container media as a function of volumetric water content and effectiveness of irrigation as a tool for modulating high temperatures in container media were studied. Volumetric water and sand content interacted to affect container medium thermal diffusivity. Adding sand to a pine bark container medium decreased thermal diffusivity if volumetric water content was less than 10 percent and increased thermal diffusivity if volumetric water content was between 10 and 70 percent. Thermal diffusivity was greatest for a 3 pine bark : 2 sand container medium if volumetric water content was between 30 and 70 percent. Irrigation was used to decrease temperatures in 10-liter container media. Irrigation water at 26°C was more effective if 1) volumes equaled or exceeded 3000 ml, 2) applications were made during mid-day, and 3) sand was present in the container medium compared to pine bark alone. However, due to the volume of water required to lower container media temperatures, nursery operators should first consider reducing incoming irradiance via overhead shade or container spacing.

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Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram

Root growth of Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary' was studied for 16 wk after an 8-wk exposure period to 30°, 34°, 38°, or 42°±0.8°C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied 6 hr daily, Immediately after the RZT treatment period, total root length was similar for trees exposed to 30°, 34°, and 38°C and was reduced 45% at 42° compared to 38°C. For weeks eight and 18 of the post-treatment period, response of total root length to RZT was linear. Total root length of trees exposed to 28°C was 247% and 225% greater than those exposed to 42°C RZT at week eight and 16, respectively. Root dry weight from the 42°C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38° and 34°C RZT treatment, respectively, at week eight. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42°C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38° and 34°C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks eight and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38°C treatment whereas growth suppression by the 42°C treatment was still evident after 16 wk. Previous exposure of tree roots to supraoptimal RZT regimens may have long-term implications for suppressing growth and lengthening the establishment period of trees in the landscape,

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Chris A. Martin and Dewayne L. Ingram

Root growth of Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary' was studied for 16 wk after an 8-wk exposure period to 30°, 34°, 38°, or 42°±0.8°C root-zone temperature (RZT) treatments applied 6 hr daily, Immediately after the RZT treatment period, total root length was similar for trees exposed to 30°, 34°, and 38°C and was reduced 45% at 42° compared to 38°C. For weeks eight and 18 of the post-treatment period, response of total root length to RZT was linear. Total root length of trees exposed to 28°C was 247% and 225% greater than those exposed to 42°C RZT at week eight and 16, respectively. Root dry weight from the 42°C RZT treatment was 29% and 48% less than 38° and 34°C RZT treatment, respectively, at week eight. By week 16, root dry weight as a function of RZT had changed such that the 42°C RZT was 43% and 47% less than 38° and 34°C RZT, respectively. Differences in root growth patterns between weeks eight and 16 suggest that trees were able to overcome the detrimental effects of the 38°C treatment whereas growth suppression by the 42°C treatment was still evident after 16 wk. Previous exposure of tree roots to supraoptimal RZT regimens may have long-term implications for suppressing growth and lengthening the establishment period of trees in the landscape,