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  • Author or Editor: Mark J. Bassett x
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Abstract

Dry seeds of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., were treated with 10 and 20 kilo roentgen (kR) of gamma rays to induce plant mutations suitable for use as genetic markers in mapping studies. The 10 and 20 kR treatments produced a total of 9 marker mutations from a total of 412 separate M2 progenies. The mutations changed leaf shape and texture, and produced dwarfism and various chlorophyll deficiencies. Inheritance characteristics were determined and the mutant markers are described. The round leaf (rnd), dark green savoy leaf (dgs), diamond leaf (dia), chlorotic cup leaf (cc), and stipelless lanceolate leaf (sl) mutants are adequately described by their names. Dwarf out-crossing (do) has small leaves, short internodes and pods, and a natural out-crossing frequency of 10%–56%. Chlorotic stem (cs) has a milky white stems, while silver leaf (sil) has its leaf color modified by a silvery reflectance. Progressive chlorosis (pc) has leaves which emerge normal green in color, but become chlorotic with age. The relationship of these mutants to previously reported mutants is discussed.

Open Access

Abstract

Nine recessive gamma ray induced bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., mutants were selected for linkage testing in diallel crosses. All mutants had a common genetic background, Florida dry bean breeding line 7-1404. Linkage was calculated using F2 data, employing Fisher and Balmukand's product ratio method for crosses in repulsion and coupling phases. Repulsion phase linkage tests revealed 2 linkage groups involving 5 genes. Round leaf (rnd), stipelless lanceolate leaf (sl), and dark green savoy leaf (dgs) formed one linkage group, while diamond leaf (dia) and progressive chlorosis (pc) formed the 2nd linkage group. Recombination values from combined repulsion and coupling phase data were: rnd with sl, p = 11.51 ± 0.95; sl with dgs, p = 20.50 ± 1.34; and rnd with dgs, p = 30.07 ± 1.38. Dgs was found to be linked to the yellow wax locus, y, thereby tying the dgs - sl - rnd linkage group into linkage group VII defined by Lamprecht. Also, the y locus was found to be independent of rnd. Preliminary data suggest that the dwarf seed (ds) character may be controlled by the same locus as Lamprecht's tenuis (te), also of linkage group VII, and ds was found to be linked to rnd. If te and ds are identical, then the orientation of the dgs - sl - rnd linkage group with respect to y and te is determined.

Open Access

Nitrogen is required for successful carrot production on sandy soils of the southeastern United States, yet carrot growers often apply N in amounts exceeding university recommendations. Excessive fertilization is practiced to compensate for losses of N from leaching and because some growers believe that high rates of fertilization improve vegetable quality. Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were grown in three plantings during Winter 1994–95 in Gainesville, Fla., to test the effects of N fertilization on yield and quality. Yield increased with N fertilization but the effect of N rate depended on planting date; 150 kg·ha–1 N maximized yield for November and December plantings but 180 kg·ha–1 N was sufficient for the January planting. Concentration of total alcohol-soluble sugar was maximized at 45 mg·g–1 fresh root with 140 kg·ha–1 N for `Choctaw' carrots, whereas sugar concentration of `Scarlet Nantes' roots was not affected by N fertilization. Carrot root carotenoid concentration was maximized at 55 mg·kg–1 fresh root tissue with 160 kg·ha–1 N. Generally, those N fertilization rates that maximized carrot root yield also maximized carrot quality as determined by sugar and carotenoid concentrations.

Free access

Potassium (K) is required for successful carrot (Daucus carota) production on sandy soils of the southeastern United States, yet there is little published research documenting most current university Cooperative Extension Service recommendations. Soil test methods for K in carrot production have not been rigorously validated. Excessive fertilization sometimes is practiced by carrot growers to compensate for potential losses of K from leaching and because some growers believe that high rates of fertilization may improve vegetable quality. Carrots were grown in three plantings during the winter of 1994-95 in Gainesville, Fla., to test the effects of K fertilization on carrot yield and quality on a sandy soil testing medium (38 ppm) in Mehlich-1 soil-test K. Large-size carrot yield was increased linearly with K fertilization. Yields of U.S. No. 1 grade carrots and total marketable carrots were not affected by K fertilization. K fertilizer was not required on this soil even though the University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service recommendation was for 84 lb/acre K. Neither soluble sugar nor carotenoid concentrations in carrot roots were affected by K fertilization. The current K recommendation for carrots grown on sandy soils testing 38 ppm Mehlich-1 K could be reduced and still maintain maximum carrot yield and root quality.

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Inheritance of the strong greenish-yellow (SGY) seedcoat color in `Wagenaar' common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. Line 5-593 is a determinate, Florida dry bean breeding line (with small black seeds) used as the recurrent parent in the development of many genetic stocks, e.g., g b v BC3 5-593. Through crosses with genetic tester stocks, the seedcoat genotype of `Wagenaar' was confirmed to be C J g b v lae Rk. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers (OAP7850, OAP31400, and OU14950) that cosegregated with the G seedcoat color locus were developed from the F2 population derived from the cross g b v BC2 5-593 × G b v BC3 5-593. From the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593, 80 F2 plants were classified into 54 non-SGY and 16 SGY seedcoat color plants. When the OAP7850 marker was applied to that population, linkage was not observed with the non-SGY and SGY phenotypes. Conversely, a molecular marker (OAP12400, that was developed from the F2 from the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593) linked to the locus controlling the SGY phenotype segregated independently of the G locus. Therefore, SGY phenotype is not controlled by the G locus. An F3 progeny test of 76 F2 plants from the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593 confirmed the hypothesis that a single recessive gene (for which we propose the symbol gy) controls the seedcoat color change from pale greenish yellow (PGY) to SGY. Through crosses with genetic tester stocks, the seedcoat genotype of `Enola' was determined to be C J g b v lae Rk. The test cross `Enola' × `Wagenaar' demonstrated that `Enola' also carries the gy gene. The relationship of `Enola' to the `Mayocoba' market class of common bean and to `Azufrado Peruano 87' is discussed.

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Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genes, J (modifies seedcoat color and pattern) and L (modifies partly colored seedcoat pattern), were tested for allelism using genetic tester stocks. Those stocks have a common genetic background by backcrossing to the recurrent parent, Florida dry bean breeding line 5-593, that has black self-colored seeds and purple flowers due to the genotype T P [C r] Z J G B V Rk. Specifically, the L gene from `Thuringia' and the lers gene from `Early Wax' were tested for allelism with the j gene from various genetic tester stocks. L was found to be identical with j, but l ers was a different allele at J. We propose the gene symbols J (formerly l), j (formerly L), and j ers (formerly l ers). The seedcoat genotype of `Thuringia' was found to be t P C z j g b v lae rk d. A new seedcoat pattern called reverse margo was found to be determined by the genotype T/t z/z j/j ers in a P C G B V genetic background. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker was developed for the j gene (formerly L) from `Thuringia' using bulk segregant analysis in an F2 population segregating for j vs. J in a t z genetic background, i.e., from the cross t z j × t z J in BC1 to 5-593. The linkage distance between marker OL4525 and j was determined to be 1.2 cM. In a population segregating for J and j ers, the distance between the marker and j ers was determined to be 4.7 cM. The utility of marker OL4525 is limited primarily to the Middle American gene pool.

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The development of a complete linkage map, including both classical (visible) and molecular markers, is important to understand the genetic relationships among different traits in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objective of this study was to integrate classical marker genes into previously constructed molecular linkage maps in common bean. Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to genes for five classical marker traits: dark green savoy leaf (dgs), blue flower (blu), silvery [Latin: argentum] green pod (arg), yellow wax pod (y) and flat pod (a spontaneous mutation from round to flat pod in `Hialeah' snap bean). The genes for dark green savoy leaf (dgs) and blue flower (blu) were located in a previously constructed molecular linkage map. These results indicate that classical marker genes and molecular markers can be integrated to form a more complete and informative genetic linkage map. Most of the RAPD markers were not polymorphic in the two mapping populations used, and molecular markers from those mapping populations were not polymorphic in the F2 populations used to develop the RAPD markers. Alternative genetic hypotheses for the pod shape mutation in `Hialeah' are discussed, and the experimental difficulties of pod shape classification are described.

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Three dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in seedcoat color, mineral brown (P C D J G B v), yellow brown (P C D J G b v), and pale greenish yellow (P C D J g b v), were analyzed phytochemically. Kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin) was isolated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy from all three genotypes, and was the main flavonoid monomer present. Flavonoid polymers (condensed tannins) were detected by thin layer chromatography, but anthocyanins were not detected in the three genotypes. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses indicated that astragalin was present at similar concentrations in pale greenish yellow and mineral brown genotypes, but was significantly lower in yellow brown. Presently, we do not know the functions of the G and B color genes, although the presence of astragalin in the three genotypes studied indicates these genes do not appear to act in a qualitative manner with regard to astragalin production, but may control the amount of astragalin present. Subtle differences in color between these genotypes may be due to the amount and type of tannins which have secondarily polymerized with phenolics and flavonoid monomers.

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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants with partly colored seeds and colored flowers were derived from PI 507984 in two genetic tester stocks, `2-points t cf BC1 5-593' and `2-points t cf BC2 5-593'. These stocks were produced by backcrossing to the recurrent parent, Florida dry bean breeding line 5-593, which has black self-colored seeds and purple flowers due to the genotype T P V. The crosses `2-points t cf BC1 5-593' × 5-593 and `2-points t cf BC2 5-593' × 5-593 produced F2 populations in which all plants had colored flowers. Those results, when considered with previously published work, do not support the previously reported hypothesis that the genes t Fcr Fcr-2 produce partly colored seedcoats and flower color restoration with t. The crosses `2-points t cf BC1 5-593' × `self-colored t BC2 5-593' and `2-points t cf BC2 5-593' × `minimus t BC3 5-593' produced F2 populations that segregated 3:1 for colored:white flowers, respectively. Those results are consistent with the revised hypothesis that t cf can produce partly colored seedcoats without affecting flower color. The RAPD marker OM19400, which is linked in repulsion to T, was used with the F2 populations from the crosses `2-points t cf BC2 5-593' × 5-593 and `2-points t cf BC2 5-593' × `minimus t BC3 5-593' and established that the t cf gene from PI 507984 is either an allele at T or tightly linked to T. F3 data from the cross `2-points t cf BC2 5-593 × 5-593 also support the t cf hypothesis. On the basis of the above experiments, the gene symbol t cf is proposed for an allele at T that pleiotropically produces partly colored seeds and colored flowers.

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Inheritance of red flower color was investigated in crosses using Lamprecht's lines M0169 and M0056, which are derived from Phaseolus coccineus L., and Univ. of Florida P. vulgaris L. breeding line 5-593. Based on segregation in the F2populations from 5-593 × M0169 and 5-593 × M0056, we hypothesize that the genotypes for flower colors are sal/sal V/V for 5-593 and Sal/Sal v/v for M0169 and M0056. The backcross 5-593 × F, (5-593 × M0056) segregated for four flower colors in about equal frequencies, and F2, F3, and F4progeny tests of the backcross plants provided confirmation of all the genotypes in the digenic model. The two recombinant true-breeding colors/genotypes were white (sal/sal v/v) and china rose (Sal/Sal V/V). We hypothesize that the large deficiency of plants carrying the Sal allele in segregating populations is due to a gametophyte factor linked to Sal. We propose the gene symbol Ga for the gametophyte factor locus, which achieves complete selection for pollen carrying Ga on female plants carrying Ga, i.e., no pollen carrying ga achieves fertilization. The linkage between Ga and the marker locus Sal is 17 CM (centiMorgan).

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