Production irradiance levels on growth, light compensation point (LCP), dark respiration (DR), and interior longevity of potted chrysanthemum (Demfranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. cvs. Iridon and Mountain Peak) and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. cvs. Annette Hegg Dark Red and Gutbier V-10 Amy) were determined. LCP and DR were measured at anthesis and during acclimatization to interior conditions (10 μmol·s-1·m-2). Days to flowering, inflorescence diameter, total chlorophyll, and interior longevity of chrysanthemum increased when maintained at a mean maximum photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 500 μmol·s-1·m-2 compared to plants shifted to 300 or 100 μmol·s-1·m-2 8 weeks after planting. LCP and DR were highest at anthesis and were reduced 38% and 49%, respectively, for chrysanthemum and 19% and 42%, respectively, for poinsettia within 3 days in interior conditions. Chrysanthemum plants shifted to 300 μmol·s1·m-2 during production had lower LCP and DR rates at anthesis and throughout time in interior conditions compared to plants maintained at 500 μmol·s-1·m-2. The acclimatization of chrysanthemum to reduced production PPFD is of little significance because interior longevity is reduced. No differences were found in the LCP or DR of poinsettia or chrysanthemum cultivars that differ in interior performance, demonstrating that these physiological characteristics are not good indicators of interior longevity for chrysanthemum and poinsettia.
Terril A. Nell, Ria T. Leonard, and James E. Barrett
Jeff B. Million, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
Drench applications of paclobutrazol (PBZ) are becoming increasingly popular as a means for controlling height in potted plants, and research is being conducted to quantify the distribution of PBZ following applications. In one trial, 120 ml of 0 or 1 mg 1-1 PBZ were applied to 15-cm pots filled with either Vergro Klay Mix (no bark) or Metro Mix 500 (bark). A bioassay using broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica) seedlings was used to quantify PBZ in leachates and media following treatment drenches. Leachate PBZ concentrations were lower for Vergro than for Metro Mix 500; however, leachates for both media were <0.1 mg·liter–1. Concentrations of PBZ in media decreased with depth and were four to 10 times higher in the uppermost 2.5 cm than in lower horizons. For the uppermost 2.5 cm of media, higher PBZ concentrations were recovered in Metro Mix 500 than in Vergro. A follow-up study will compare surface vs. subsurface application methods on the movement of PBZ into pots.
Barbara C. Poole, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Premature flower bud abscission imposes a serious limitation on longevity of potted Hibiscus in interiorscape situations, Ethylene is known to be one causative factor. Past research has suggested that carbohydrate depletion of buds may also be involved,
A series of experiments was conducted to examine the relationship between carbohydrate levels and ethylene sensitivity of flower buds under low irradiance levels. Two cultivars were used: `Pink Versicolor', which is very susceptible to bud abscission, and the more resistant `Vista', In the first experiment, plants were harvested twice weekly after placement in interiorscape rooms (8.5 μmol m-2 s-1 for 12 hrs per day; 26.5°C day/night) until all buds had abscissed. At each harvest, buds from four size groups were collected for analysis. In the second experiment, source/sink strength of buds was manipulated by selective daily removal of certain sized buds. Remaining buds were collected just prior to abscission for analysis. In two additional experiments, `Pink Versicolor' plants were treated with either silver thiosulfate or ethephon prior to placement in interiorscape rooms. Plants were harvested twice weekly and buds collected. For all experiments, bud dry wt, total soluble sugars and starch content were determined.
G.H. Pemberton, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Senescence of gladiolus flowers, like many geophytes, does not involve a climacteric burst of ethylene. Eleven gladiolus cultivars were screened and all were non-climacteric (NC) for both respiration and ethylene production. Average ethylene levels for individual flowers were 0.5 μl C2H4/kg per h or less. As in other NC flowers, protein synthesis may be linked to senescence. Our goal was to identify specific proteins that were involved in the senescence process that could be used as indicators of postharvest longevity. SDS-PAGE protein profiles of cut gladiolus flowers were determined from a tight bud stage to senescence. Both increases and decreases were observed in major polypeptides that may be connected to postharvest flower longevity. Total protein content of gladiolus flower petals decreased by ≈70% during the profile period. This could explain the relatively short postharvest life of 3 to 5 days for individual gladiolus flowers. Total protein profiles were probed with an ACC synthase antibody to establish the relationship of this enzyme in NC senescence.
Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
`Improved Mefo' chrysanthemums were grown at 22C/18C and 34C/28C day/night temperature regimes to evaluate the failure of lateral bud development following pinching of this temperature sensitive cultivar. The number of viable buds on plants at the high temperatures was 40% of number at low temperature. Loss of bud viability was categorized as those buds that were: 1) absent, or 2) those in which growth was present, but inhibited. Inhibited buds were visible swellings surrounded by dense masses of secondary cell wall material. Anatomical studies were completed to verify the absence of lateral buds and determine what cellular changes imposed inhibition on those buds that did develop. A second group of experiments demonstrated that moving low-temperature plants to the high temperature caused production of viable buds to decline. Plants were moved from high temperatures to low, and reciprocally to high from low temperature. Anatomical sampling of apical meristems began at time of shift and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after temperature shift. High-temperature meristems possessed predominantly non-viable lateral buds, with few viable buds present.
Nadia Roude, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Plant height, flower diameter, days to flower, and longevity of `Iridon' chrysanthemums [Dendranthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were not affected by various N and K concentrations (112, 225, 337, and 450 mg·liter-1) supplied during the last 5 weeks of production. However, increasing N concentration increased medium conductance, while varying K concentration had no effect on conductance. Visual grade of `Iridon' after 3 weeks in a simulated interior environment showed an interaction between concentrations of N and K. In a second study, growth and longevity of `Iridon' were affected by NH4: NO3 ratios. Plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio flowered 4 days later than plants receiving a 0.5:0.5 ratio and were taller than plants fertilized with a 1.0:0 ratio. Longevity was greater in plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio than in those receiving 0.5:0.5 or 0.75:0.25 ratios. Also, longevity was similar in plants receiving NH4: NO3 ratios of 0:1.0, 0.1:0.9, 0.2:0.8, and 0.3:0.7. Plants receiving 0:1.0 lasted 6 days longer than those receiving a 0.4:0.6 ratio.
Trinidad Reyes, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
`Tara' and `Boaldi' were fertilized with 150 and 450 ppm from 20N–4.7P–16.6K soluble fertilizer and moved at flowering to postproduction conditions (21 ± 2C and 10 μmol·m–2·s–1). Shipping was simulated for 1 week at 26C. `Tara' exhibited burned leaf margins (necrosis) and chlorosis following shipping. At 150 ppm, leaves had brown, dried margins, but the damage did not progress indoors. Necrosis was worse at 450 ppm. Leaf chlorosis/necrosis of non-shipped plants at the 450 fertilizer level did not appear until the 3rd week indoors. At experiment termination, no leaf damage occurred in non-shipped `Tara' or `Boaldi' with 150 ppm. `Boaldi' did not show damage after shipping regardless of the treatment but symptoms (necrosis and wilting of leaves) evolved during the first 2 weeks indoors on plants fertilized with 450 ppm. A 50% reduction in root soluble carbohydrates was found at the highest fertilizer rate at flowering, suggesting that leaf chlorosis/necrosis is related to carbohydrate depletion in chrysanthemum.
Lori A. Black, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Dormant-budded `Gloria' azaleas (Rhododendron sp.) at various maturity levels (one, eight, or 32 individual open flowers) were moved from the greenhouse to postproduction rooms. Postproduction rooms were maintained at 21 ± 1C, relative humidity 50% ± 5%, and 12 hours of daily irradiance at 12 μmol·s–1·m–2 from cool-white fluorescent lamps to simulate home conditions. Using predetermined categories, the number of tight, showing-color, candle, and open-flower inflorescences were recorded. After 2 weeks postproduction, plants chosen at the start of postproduction with eight or 32 individual open flowers had the best flowering uniformity and flower color. In a second experiment, azaleas with one, eight, or 32 individual open flowers were placed into simulated transport for 4 days at 16 ± 1C. Plants with one individual open flower had greatest longevity, but those with eight open flowers had the best overall postproduction performance. In a final experiment, azaleas at similar maturity levels were placed in simulated transport at 5, 16, or 27C for 2, 4, or 6 days. After 2 weeks postprodudion, there was no difference due to simulated-transport temperature or duration on flowering performance or flower color. Longevity was good for plants held 2, 4, or 6 days at 5C and for plants held for 2 days at 16 or 27C.
Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
Effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and temperature on quantitative axillary budbreak and elongation of pinched chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] plants were studied in three experiments. In Expt. 1, 12 commercial cultivars were compared under fall and spring environmental conditions. Spring increases in lateral shoot counts were attributable to increased PPF and air temperature. Cultivars varied from 0 to 12 lateral branches per pinched plant and by as much as 60% between seasons. There was a linear relationship between lateral branches >5 cm at 3 weeks after pinching and final branch count (y = 0.407 + 0.914(x), r 2 = 0.92). In Expt. 2, air was at 20 or 25C and the root zone was maintained at 5, 0, or –5C relative to air temperature. With air at 20C, lateral branch counts (3 weeks after pinch) declined by ≤50% with the medium at 15C relative to 25C. At 25C, lateral branch count was lower with medium at 30C than at 20C. Cultivars differed in their response to the treatments. Experiment 3 compared the interactions among temperature, PPF, and cultivar on lateral branch count. Depending on cultivar, the count increased the higher the PPF between 400 and 1400 μmol·m–2·s–1. Air temperature had no effect on lateral branch count. PPF had a stronger effect on lateral branch count than air temperature, and cultivars differed in their response.
William M. Womack, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
`Prize' and `Gloria' azaleas were budded at 29C day/24C night without growth regulators. Dormant-budded plants were held at 2, 7, 13, or 18C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks and then forced in walk-in growth chambers (29C day/24C night). A model was developed to describe the effect of cooling temperature and duration on days to marketability (eight open flowers) and percent of buds showing color. Holding at temperatures below 7C, increases days to marketability up to 7 days. Extended cooling (beyond 6 weeks) at temperatures <7C increases percent of buds showing color. Extended holding at temperatures >7C decreases buds in color due to development of bypass shoots during cooling and increased bud abortion. Plants not receiving a cool-treatment or cooled for <2 weeks do not flower uniformly. Furthermore, the percentage of plants reaching marketability dramatically decreases for plants held longer than 6 weeks at temperatures >7C. Both cultivars show similar trends, but `Gloria' has greater variability.