Genetics of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) cut flower postharvest longevity (PHL) was investigated by generation means analysis using a white short-lived inbred (WS) and white long-lived inbred (WL) to determine mode of inheritance and heritability. Broad and narrow sense PHL heritability was estimated at 78% and 30%, respectively. Scaling tests for adequacy of an additive-dominance model in explaining PHL inheritance suggested absence of epistasis. However, joint scaling indicated digenic or higher order epistatic interactions. Fitting of a digenic epistatic model revealed significant additive effects and nonsignificant dominance and epistatic interactions. Additionally, based on sequential model fittings all six parameters [mean, additive (a), dominance (d), a×a, d×d, and a×d] proved necessary to explain observed PHL variation. Continuous variation for PHL observed in the F2 and backcross generations suggests PHL is quantitative. Assessment of associated traits revealed a positive relationship between number of flowers opening postharvest on a cut flower and PHL. In addition, floret wilting led to short PHL while floret browning was associated with long PHL.
Kenneth R. Schroeder and Dennis P. Stimart
William J. Martin and Dennis P. Stimart
Stomatal density during plant development and inheritance of the trait were investigated with the goal of utilizing stomatal density as a correlated trait to cutflower postharvest longevity in Antirrhinum majus L. Inbred P1 (stomatal index = 0.2) was hybridized to inbred P2 (stomatal index = 0.3) to produce F1 (P1 × P2), which was backcrossed to each parent producing BCP1 (F1 × P1) and BCP2 (F1 × P2). P1, P2, F1, BCP1, and BCP2 were used to examine changes in stomatal density with plant development and early generation inheritance. An F2 (F1 self-pollinated), and F3, F4, and F5 families, derived by self-pollination and single seed descent, were used to obtain information on advanced generation inheritance. Stomatal density was stable over time and with development of leaves at individual nodes after seedlings reached two weeks of age. Therefore, stomatal density can be evaluated after two weeks of plant development from a leaf at any node. Stomatal density is quantitatively inherited with narrow sense heritabilities of h2 F2:F3 = 0.47 to 0.49, h2 F3:F4 = 0.37 ± 0.06 to 0.60 ± 0.07, and h2 F4:F5 = 0.47 ± 0.07 to 0.50 ± 0.07.
James F. Harbage and Dennis P. Stimart
We investigated the role of ethylene on adventitious rooting of `Gala' (easy-to-root) and `Triple Red Delicious' (difficult-to-root) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) microcuttings. Root count increased significantly as IBA level increased, with highest root counts on `Gala'. Ethylene evolution increased significantly with IBA level without significant differences between cultivars. Basal section removal of microcuttings in the area of root origin reduced root count without changing ethylene evolution. Ethylene treatment of proliferated shoots before microcutting excision failed to enhance rooting. IBA-induced ethylene evolution was eliminated nearly by AVG, but root count remained IBA dependent. ACC reversed IBA plus AVG rooting inhibition, but ACC alone failed to influence root count. Polar auxin transport inhibitors NPA and TIBA stimulated ethylene evolution without increasing root count. Adventitious rooting of apple microcuttings was not associated with ethylene. Chemical names used: 1-H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA); N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA).
Kenneth R. Schroeder and Dennis P. Stimart
Evaluation of leaf stomatal numbers and postharvest water loss indicate these are important factors in Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) cut flower postharvest longevity (PHL). Cut flowers with 9 days longer PHL had 53% fewer leaf stomata. Long PHL is associated with an early reduction in transpiration followed by low steady transpiration. Short-lived genotypes had a linear transpiration pattern over the period of PHL indicating poor stomatal control of water loss. Short-lived genotypes had 22% to 33% reductions in fourth quarter transpiration while long-lived genotypes had 2% to 8% reductions. In addition, short-lived genotypes had higher average fourth quarter cut flower weight losses compared to long-lived genotypes. Further investigation of stomatal numbers and functioning relative to PHL may provide breeders a rapid and nondestructive indirect selection method for PHL.
Susan M. Stieve and Dennis P. Stimart
Eighteen commercially used white Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) inbreds, a hybrid of Inbred 1 × Inbred 18 (Hybrid 1) and an F2 population (F2) of Hybrid 1 were evaluated for stomatal size and density and transpiration rate to determine their affect on postharvest longevity. Stems of each genotype were cut to 40 cm, placed in distilled water and discarded when 50% of florets wilted or browned. Postharvest longevity of inbreds ranged from 3.7 to 12.9 days; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 3.0 and 9.1 days postharvest, respectively. Leaf impressions showed less than 3% of stomata were found on the adaxial leaf surface. Inbred abaxial stomatal densities ranged from 128.2 to 300.7 stomata mm-2; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 155 and 197 stomata mm-2, respectively. Transpiration measurments on leaves of stems 24 hr after cutting were made with a LI-COR 1600 Steady State Porometer. Statistical analysis showed inbreds were significantly different based on postharvest longevity, stomatal size and density and transpiration of cut stems.
Dennis P. Stimart and John C. Mather
Actively growing shoots from Pulmonaria L. `Roy Davidson' were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium containing benzyladenine (BA) to establish proliferating cultures. BA at 0, 0.4, 0.8, 4.4, 8.8, and 44.4 μm was compared for shoot proliferation and rooting response. Shoot count was highest on 8.8 μm BA with root count highest on 0 or 0.4 μm BA. Subculture 4 weeks later of shoots to the same treatments resulted in highest shoot counts on 44.4 μm BA. Optimum level for micropropagation was 8.8 or 44.4 μm BA. Greatest rooting was at 0 or 0.4 μm BA.
Wendy S. Higgins and Dennis P. Stimart
Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Ace' bulblets generated in vitro at 25 or 30C were stored at 4C for O, 1, 2, 4, or 6 weeks after removal from culture and before planting to ascertain the effects of in vitro generation temperature and post-in vitro cold storage duration on bulblet growth responses during 36 weeks of greenhouse growth. Increasing post-in vitro storage duration decreased the number of days to first leaf emergence and percentage of plants producing shoots within 36 weeks, but increased the number of days to shoot emergence and anthesis, leaf number, and flower bud number. The length of time required for bulblet development from planting to shoot emergence was affected by storage duration more than periods from shoot emergence to visible bud and anthesis. It is feasible to produce high-quality L. longiflorum pot plants from in vitro-produced bulblets.
Jaime A. Weber, William J. Martin, and Dennis P. Stimart
Progeny of 158 F5 × F5 crosses of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) selected within and among cut flower postharvest longevity (PHL) categories (long = 12.6-16.8 days, middle = 9.3-12.1 days, and short = 4.8-8.9 days) were evaluated for PHL and quality traits. Results were compared with previous studies involving F2 × F2 progeny, and F3, F4, and F5 inbred lines. Heritability of PHL in F5 × F5 progeny (0.77 ± 0.11) agrees with that of inbred lines (0.79 to 0.81) but is higher than in F2 × F2 progeny (0.41). Therefore, selection for increased PHL should progress more rapidly and predictably through application of inbred lines rather than F2 individuals. Significant differences between F5 × F5 progeny PHL categories confirm PHL is heritable with a significant additive component. Heritabilities of quality traits in A. majus are high, suggesting selection for quality traits should progress without difficulty. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations of PHL with quality traits are not consistently significant across PHL studies in A. majus. Discrepancies between studies suggest most traits may not be correlated to PHL or are subject to strong environmental influence.
James S. Busse, Monica Figueroa-Cabanas, and Dennis P. Stimart*
Adventitious shoot formation in vitro from Antirrhinum majus L. hypocotyls was investigated using two inbred lines, the most and least regenerative lines selected from screening. Time course analysis indicated cell division in the most regenerative line occurred first in one or a small number of epidermal cells with periclinal and anticlinal divisions. Subsequently, cortical then vascular cells were recruited beneath the dividing epidermal cells. Once shoots formed, their vascular system was continuous with the original hypocotyl explant. The least regenerative line had no cell division directed toward organogenesis. Shoot formation on hypocotyls of A. majus was adventitious in origin, by direct organogenesis and genotype dependent.
Joseph J. King, Lloyd A. Peterson, and Dennis P. Stimart
Ammonium and NO3 uptake from hydroponic solutions containing 1 mm each of (NH4)2SO4 and Ca(NO3)2 were measured during development of Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Iridon', `Sequoia', and `Sequest'. Nitrogen depletion from solutions approximated a 1 NH4: 1 NO3 ratio throughout a 90-day growth cycle (r = 0.96). Although harvest date cultivar interactions were significant for both forms of N, overall patterns of N uptake were similar among cultivars. Nitrogen removal from hydroponic solutions (milligrams per plant) was greatest from days 40 to 60; however, N removal (milligrams per gram of tissue dry weight) was greatest in the first month of development and decreased steadily until day 90. From day 40 to 60, new leaf development ceased while inflorescence buds developed to ≈1.0 cm in diameter. After this time, N uptake decreased rapidly as inflorescences expanded. Correlations between morphological changes and N demand could maximize the efficiency of applied N by matching form and application timing with plant needs.