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  • Author or Editor: Nina Bassuk x
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Single-node `Royalty' rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cuttings were used to examine the relationship between adventitious root formation, budbreak, and ethylene synthesis following IBA treatment. IBA was applied as a lo-second basal quick dip before rooting, and AIB, GA3, STS, and ethephon were applied either as basal dips or foliar sprays. IBA application increased rooting and inhibited budbreak of cuttings. IBA 2 600 mg·liter-1 greatly inhibited budbreak during 4 weeks of rooting. IBA treatment stimulated ethylene synthesis, which was inversely correlated with budbreak of cuttings. Ethephon also significantly inhibited budbreak. Budbreak of rose cuttings was completely prevented by repeated ethephon sprays used to maintain high endogenous ethylene levels during the first 10 days. Treatment with STS, an ethylene-action inhibitor, improved budbreak. The inhibition of budbreak by IBA treatment resulted primarily from elevated ethylene levels. Root initiation and root elongation of cuttings initially inhibited budbreak, but later promoted budbreak. Chemical names used: indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); gibberellic acid (GA3); silver thiosulfate (STS); AIB, aminoisobutyric acid (AIB); (2-chloroethyl)-phosphoric acid (ethephon).

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In a study of stock plant etiolation and stem banding, stem cuttings of upright European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. `Fastigiata') were taken at 2-week intervals over 4 months following budbreak and rooted under intermittent mist for 30 days. Percent rooting and root counts declined with increasing cutting age. Stock plant etiolation and stem banding increased percent rooting and root counts throughout the study, with the combination of both treatments yielding the best rooting. In nontreated stems, > 75% rooting was achieved only within 4 weeks of budbreak. Etiolation and stem banding resulted in rooting ≥ 75% up to 3 months after budbreak. In two shading studies, stock plants were grown in a glass greenhouse under 0%, 50%, 75%, or 95% shade, or initially etiolated (100% shade) for 1.5 days. Cuttings were taken after 2.5 and 60 days and treated with IBA concentrations ranging from 0 to 4.9 mm before rooting under intermittent mist for 30 days. Percent rooting increased proportionally to the degree of shading, with a maximum response at 95% shade. Cuttings taken at 60 days were less responsive to etiolation and shading than those harvested at 25 days. Auxin concentration interacted with shading to yield, at 95% shade and 3.7 mm IBA, the highest rooting percentage and the greatest root counts and lengths. Light exclusion by etiolation, stem banding, or shading can extend the cutting propagation season by increasing rooting responses and increasing the sensitivity of stem cuttings to exogenously applied auxin. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Abstract

A modification of the traditional technique of etiolation and blanching, using Velcro adhesive fabric strips as the blanching material, was used with success in improving cutting propagation of a wide range of difficult-to-root woody species. Stockplants were etiolated under black cloth at budbreak, followed by banding for a period of 4 weeks, to produce a cutting with an etiolated base. Rooting of softwood cuttings from 18 of 21 species tested was improved significantly by these stockplant pretreatments. The use of Velcro as the banding material facilitated blanching, permitted the application of rooting hormone as a part of the blanching procedure, wounded underlying stem tissues, and resulted occasionally in the formation of adventitious roots on intact shoots.

Open Access

A tissue culture system was developed to clonally propagate a series of hybrid white oaks (Quercus L.) at the plant breeding program of the Urban Horticulture Institute (UHI), Cornell University. From 2014 through 2018, 34 genotypes and 1966 individual explants of UHI hybrid white oaks were trialed to determine their capacity to establish, multiply, and root in a tissue culture environment. UHI hybrid oak genotypes were selected based on their known tolerance to stresses common in the urban environment (drought, alkaline soils, pests, and diseases) and their ornamental qualities. Individual genotype was the single largest factor affecting successful establishment, multiplication, stabilization, and rooting of hybrid oaks in vitro. Thirteen clones of hybrid oaks were identified as having the capacity to stabilize and grow continuously in the multiplication phase. Multiplication efficiency rates were dependent on individual genotype. Stabilized genotypes showed the capacity to be re-established during successive years. The tissue culture process was simplified and refined to make the protocols less labor intensive for laboratory technicians using these methods. This study presents a preliminary and promising method for the clonal propagation of oak species and provides a path for cultivar development for plants belonging to the genus Quercus.

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Growth and physiological characteristics were evaluated in autografted and reciprocally grafted plants of Prunus avium L. ×pseudocerasus Lindl. `Colt' and Prunus cerasus L. `Meteor'. Containerized plants were grown for 150 days in a greenhouse under either well-watered or water-stressed conditions. Both the scion and rootstock influenced growth (relative growth rate, R̄), morphological [leaf area : root surface area (LARSA) and specific leaf area (SLA)], and physiological (mean net assimilation rate, Ē) characteristics of grafted plants. Regardless of the watering regime, plants with `Meteor' scions and `Colt' rootstocks maintained higher R̄ than plants with `Colt' scions and `Meteor' rootstocks. This enhanced growth occurred as a result of higher Ē. Measurements on water-stressed plants also showed that the graft combination of `Meteor' on `Colt' had the lowest LARSA, while the reciprocal combination of `Colt' on `Meteor' had the highest. Differences in LARSA among water-stressed plants primarily reflected changes in SLA, as influenced by both rootstock and scion, and not in partitioning of dry weight between these organs.

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Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative resistance of 33 selected cultivars of English ivy (Hedera helix L.) to soil- and shoot-applied NaCl. In the soil-applied NaCl experiment, ramets of the 33 cultivars were irrigated with a fertilizer + 0.25-N NaCl solution for 55 days. `Harrison', `Hibernica', `Thorndale', Wilson', and Woerner' exhibited the least amount of visible shoot damage. Dry weights of all cultivars were much lower in the salt treatment. In the shoot-applied NaCl experiment, plants were sprayed daily with a 0.25-n NaCl solution for 48 days. The young leaves and stems of all cultivars were severely injured by the salt spray, while the mature leaves and stems and the dormant buds were only slightly injured. Reduction in dry weight varied between cultivars. Two subsequent experiments focused on resistance to soil-applied NaCl. Ramets of the NaCl-resistant `Harrison', `Hibernica', and `Thorndale', and the NaCl-sensitive `Baltica', `Cathedral Wall', and Wingertsberg' were irrigated with a fertilizer + 0.25-N NaCl solution for 48 days. Whole-plant Cl content for all six cultivars was in the range of 30,000 ppm. Ramets of `Thorndale' and `Cathedral Wall' were irrigated with a fertilizer + 0.25-N NaCl solution for 30 days with replicate plants harvested at S-day intervals. `Cathedral Wall' accumulated more Cl at a faster rate than `Thorndale'. Mean whole-plant Cl concentration peaked at 97,000 ppm for `Cathedral Wall' and 40,000 ppm for `Thorndale'. Salt resistance may be partly based on slower uptake of Cl.

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Root and shoot phenology were observed, and root length within rootballs were calculated for Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (green ash), Quecus coccinea Muenchh. (scarlet oak), Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazelnut), and Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara `Ivory Silk' (tree lilac) trees established in a rhizotron. Easy-to-transplant species (green ash and tree lilac) had more root length within rootballs than difficult-to-transplant species (Turkish hazelnut and scarlet oak). Shoot growth began before root growth on all species except scarlet oak, which began root and shoot growth simultaneously. Fall root growth ceased for all species just after leaf drop. Implications for tree transplanting are discussed.

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A Minolta SPAD-502 leaf chlorophyll meter was used for nondestructive data collection on the chlorophyll and nitrogen (N) status of benjamin fig (Ficus benjamina) and cottonwood (Populus deltoides) to quantitatively evaluate foliage quality. The goal was to provide a specific calibration for interpreting SPAD data within a media study for each species. Triplicate SPAD readings were collected from each of six leaves, sampled from forty plants per species, then processed for foliar analysis. Leaf tissue disks were also collected directly over SPAD testing sites for chlorophyll concentration measurement. Significant linear correlations were found between SPAD data and chlorophyll concentrations (r 2 = 0.90 in benjamin fig and r 2 = 0.91 for cottonwood). A significant, but lower correlation was found between SPAD data and N concentration. The SPAD-N correlations improved from the fifth month to the ninth month harvest (r 2 = 0.32 to 0.53 for benjamin fig and 0.26 to 0.42 for cottonwood). The SPAD-502 could be useful for in landscape plant management, and in time for production situations, but baseline data is needed. Consistent protocol in sample collection and seasonal timing is needed prior to use as a predictor for tissue N levels. Development of species, and perhaps cultivar, specific baseline data and sampling procedures will need development, but could yield a rapid, quantitative, in expensive field diagnostic for foliage quality for making cultural management decisions.

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This study investigated the relationship of stem anatomy to differences in rooting ability between Quercus bicolor Wild. and Quercus macrocarpa Michx. cuttings. Quercus bicolor cuttings were found to have a significantly greater proportion of parenchymatous gaps in the sclerenchyma sheath over a 9-week period compared with Q. macrocarpa cuttings. In Q. macrocarpa, the percentage gap was generally low, coinciding with the low percentage rooting observed in this species. Percentage rooting correlated well (r2 = 0.75) with the percentage parenchymatous gap in the perivascular region of Q. bicolor cuttings. The problems with accepting this relationship as causal are stated in the discussion. Untreated cuttings showed normal stem organization: a dermal tissue system that included the initial stages of phellem formation, a cortex, and a ring of closely arranged vascular bundles in early stages of secondary growth. The locations of the five distinct lobes of the pith were coordinated with the locations of root primordia. Callus growth was first detected in the cortex (i.e., external to the fiber bundles), followed by proliferation within the phloem, opposite the lobes of the pith, 8 to 12 days after cuttings were treated with indole butyric acid (6000 mg·L−1 dissolved in 50% v/v ethanol in water). By 14 to 16 days, root primordia had developed within the proliferative tissue in the secondary phloem. In both species, root primordia penetrated parenchymatous gaps in the fiber sheath directly, the fiber bundles being displaced laterally as the roots increased in size.

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Tissue osmotic potential(Ψπ) and solute constituents were evaluated in leaves and roots of well-watered and water-stressed Prunus avium L. × pseudocerasus Lindl. `Colt' and Prunus cerasus L. `Meteor'. Osmotic potential at full turgorΨπ,sat decreased in response to water stress for leaves and roots of both cultivars. For `Colt', a cultivar with an indeterminate growth habit,Ψπ,sat decreased by 0.56 MPa and 0.38 MPa for terminal expanding leaves and older expanded leaves, respectively. For `Meteor', a cultivar with a determinate growth habit,Ψπ,sat decreased by ≈0.47 MPa in both terminal and older leaves. RootΨπ,sat was alike for both cultivars and showed a similar decrease of 0.20 MPa in response to water stress. Roots had considerably higherΨπ,sat than did leaves in both cultivars, irrespective of irrigation treatment. Soluble carbohydrates and potassium (K+) were the major solute constituents in both cultivars. Of the soluble carbohydrates, sorbitol was found in the greatest concentration and accounted for the bulk of water stress-induced solute accumulation in both cultivars. Regardless of the irrigation treatment, mature leaves of `Meteor' consistently had lowerΨπ,sat (typically 0.4 MPa) than `Colt'. This variation in Ψπ,sat between Prunus cultivars suggests the potential for selection of cultivars with low Ψπ,sat and possibly superior drought resistance.

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