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  • Author or Editor: Mark J. Bassett x
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The inheritance of hilum ring color in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated using various genetic tester stocks developed by backcrossing recessive alleles into a recurrent parent stock 5-593 with seedcoat genotype P [C r] D J G B V Rk, viz., mar BC2 5-593, mar BC3 5-593, mar v BC2 5-593, mar d BC2 5-593, and mar d BC3 5-593. The current hypothesis is that the margo character is controlled by mar and hilum ring color is controlled by d but expresses only with mar. The V locus controls flower and seedcoat color. The allelism test crosses `Citroen' (P C d j g b v lae) × mar BC3 5-593 and `Citroen' × mar d BC3 5-593 demonstrated that mar is allelic with j and that the putative d in mar d BC3 5-593 is allelic with the d in `Citroen'. Thus, the former genetic tester stocks mar BC3 5-593 and mar d BC3 5-593 are reclassified as j BC3 5-593 and d j BC3 5-593, respectively, because mar is a synonym for j. Similarly, the former genetic tester stock mar v BC2 5-593 is reclassified as j v BC2 5-593. The interaction of j with d expresses as loss of color in the hilum ring. The development of the white-seeded genetic tester stock P c u d j BC3 5-593 was described in detail, where the all-recessive tester `Prakken 75' was used as the source of the recessive alleles. The previously reported work showing that the partly colored seedcoat gene t interacts with mar to control seedcoat pattern is now interpreted to mean that the joker (J) locus interacts with t to produce partly colored seedcoat patterns. The genetic loci D and V were found to segregate independently. The common gene for dull seedcoats (asper, asp) is discussed and contrasted with j.

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The development of genetic tester stocks in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for the partly colored seedcoat patterns `bipunctata BC3 5-593' (t z bip) and `virgarcus BC3 5-593' (t z) was described. The inheritance of the bipunctata pattern was studied in the F2 from the crosses `bipunctata BC1 5-593' × 5-593 and `bipunctata BC2 5-593' × 5-593. The data supported the hypothesis that a single recessive gene (bip) converts virgarcus (t z Bip) to bipunctata (t z bip). The inheritance of bipunctata was also studied in the F2 from the cross `bipunctata BC3 5-593' × `virgarcus BC3 5-593'. The data supported the hypothesis of complete dominance of Bip over bip in a t z genetic background highly related to the recurrent parent 5-593, where only the parental phenotypes appear in the F2.

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The inheritance of a seedcoat pattern having white micropyle stripe (WMS) on a colored background was studied in two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions from Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical—G12606 and G07262. The WMS character from G12606 was backcrossed into the recurrent parent 5-593, which has black seedcoats. Test crosses of the derived WMS stocks (BC1 and BC2) with genetic tester stocks stp (stippled seedcoat) BC2 5-593 and stp hbw (flowers with half banner petal white) BC3 5-593, respectively, demonstrated in F1 and F2 progenies that WMS is controlled by an allele at the Stp locus. The gene symbol stp mic is proposed for the allele expressing the WMS character. The dominance order at the Stp locus is Stp > stp mic > stp hbw > stp. Although stp and stp hbw each produce a different color pattern on flowers, stp mic does not produce patterned flowers. A selection from accession G07262 with a long, white micropyle stripe was crossed with 5-593 to derive a stock named F3 stp mic long micropyle stripe, which was then crossed to the genetic tester stock t z virgarcus BC2 5-593 to produce F1 and F2. Expression of the long micropyle stripe was controlled by the interaction of t and stp mic in the genotype t Z stp mic. The triple recessive interaction from genotype t z stp mic was also observed.

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Crosses were made with two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) parents that have pink flowers (v lae/-) and mineral-brown seedcoats with dark corona, viz., v lae BC3 5-593 (derived from Lamprecht V0491) and F3 v lae dark corona (derived from Lamprecht M0048). The third parent v BC2 5-593 had white flowers (v/v) and mineral-brown seedcoats without dark corona (derived from Lamprecht M0056). The F2 progenies of the crosses v BC2 5-593 × v lae BC3 5-593 and F3vlae dark corona × v BC2 5-593 segregated for only two phenotypic classes: either pink flowers and seeds with dark corona or white flowers and seeds without dark corona. Thus, it was demonstrated that the dark corona character (Cor) is either tightly linked to vlae (<4 map units) or is a pleiotropic effect of vlae. Pleiotropy is more probable, but tight linkage cannot be ruled out. A linkage of 15 map units between Cor and R (currently, R is known to be tightly linked with C) reported by Lamprecht was not found by subsequent authors, and the linkage map of common bean should be revised accordingly, i.e., no linkage exists between V (Cor) and C.

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The inheritance of a new allele, cv, at the C locus for seedcoat color was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using plant introduction (PI) accession 527774 as the source of cv. The cross PI 527774 (yellow-brown seed) x v BC25-593 (mineral-brown seed) genetic tester stock was studied in F1 and F2 progeny. An F3 selection from the above cross, designated F3 cv G b v, was crossed to 5-593 (a Florida breeding line with black seeds), and the F1, and F2 progeny were analyzed for color segregation. The second hackcross [S-593 x F1 (F3 cv G b v x 5-593)] was investigated in selfed progenies from 32 random BC2-F1 parents. Two of the BC2-F2 progenies were further tested in BC2,-F3. A third hackcross of cv to 5-593 was made and analyzed, and an allelism test of cv B V BC2-F35-593 with the cartridge huff cu BC3 5-593 genetic tester stock confirmed that cv is an allele at C. The gene symbol, cv, is proposed for the new allele because it is only expressed with V and gives a grayish-brown seedcoat. Genotypes with C/cv do not show heterozygous mottling with G B v or G b v, and there is no difference in seedcoat color between C G B v and cv G B v, or between C G b v and cv G b v.

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A new gene for flower color pattern, designated white banner (WB), appeared in material derived from the cross `Harvester' snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) × Plant Introduction (PI) accession 273666 of scarlet runner bean (P. coccineus L.). The WB character has a white banner petal and pale violet wings (veronica-violet 639/2). The inheritance of the mutant was studied in crosses involving dry bean breeding line 5-593, which has bishops-violet (wild-type) flowers, and genetic stocks v BC2 5-593 (white flowers) and blu BC2 5-593 (blue flowers). Segregation in F2 and F3 progenies from the cross v BC2 5-593 × WB supported the hypothesis that WB is controlled by a single recessive gene that is nonallelic with the V locus. An allelism test with blu BC2 5-593 gave evidence that WB is not allelic with the blu locus. The gene symbol wb is proposed for the gene producing WB.

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Plant Introduction (PI) accession 507984 of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has partly colored seed coats and either pure white flowers or light laelia flowers. Crosses were made with white-flowered plants of PI 507984: white-flowered plant #1 × the genetic stock t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 and white-flowered plant #2 × recurrent parent dry bean breeding line 5-593. Inheritance was studied in the F1, F2, and F3 of the former cross and the F1 and F2 of the latter cross. PI 507984 (white flower, plant #1) × t ers ers2 BC2 5-593 gave F1 plants with colored flowers and partly colored seeds. The F2 gave a 9:7 segregation ratio (colored flowers to white flowers), and the genetic model proposed is that flower color is restored in the presence of t/t by two complementary genes, Fcr and Fcr-2. That model was confirmed by F3 progeny tests of 21 F2 parents with colored flowers. The cross PI 507984 (white flower, plant #2) × 5-593 gave an F2 segregation ratio of 9:3:4 (bishops-violet: light laelia: white flowers), indicating that the white-flowered PI 507984 has v lae masked by t. Analysis of all the data suggests that PI 507984 is heterogeneous at Fcr and Fcr-2, having all three possible homozygous genotypes, viz., either light laelia flowers from v lae t Fcr Fcr-2 or white flowers from v lae t Fcr fcr-2 or v lae t fcr Fcr-2. The flower color restoration gene in 5-593 is arbitrarily assigned the symbol Fcr. Great variability occurs in partly colored seeds of PI 507984 due to the environment in which the seed was produced.

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A mutation for blue (methyl-violet) flower color was induced by gamma irradiation of dry seed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Inheritance and allelism tests demonstrated that the mutation is controlled by a single recessive gene that is not allelic with Sal or V. The gene symbol blu is proposed for this mutant. Linkage was detected between blu and Fin, which controls the change from indeterminate to determinate plant habit. Three linkage estimates ranged from 19 to 35 cM, but the large variability (homogeneity x 2 = 45.32) precludes making a conclusive combined estimate of linkage. The tentative combined estimate of linkage is 27 cM.

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Dry seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated with 20 krad (1 rad = 0.01 Gy) of gamma rays to induce plant mutations to be used as genetic markers in mapping studies. Four leaf mutants are described and illustrated. Inheritance studies demonstrated that each is controlled by a single recessive gene. The proposed gene symbols are: cml for chlorotic moderately lanceolate leaf, lbd for leaf-bleaching dwarf, glb for glossy bronzing leaf, and 01 for overlapping leaflets. Linkage tests involving cml and nine previously reported marker mutants failed to detect any linkages.

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Abstract

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotype, MITA 10597, has small seeds (x = 122 mg, s = 31) and short, narrow pods (x = 44 mm, s = 13.2) with tight constrictions between seeds. A bean breeding line, 7-1404, has longer pods (x = 99 mm, s = 18.4) and larger seeds (x = 269 mg, s = 32). The inheritance of the dwarf seed and pod type of MITA 10597 was studied in the F2 and backcross populations from the cross MITA 10597 × 7-1404 and also from F2 populations from backcrosses of 7-1404 to an F3 plant (from 7-1404 × MITA 10597) selected for the dwarf seed (DS) character. The DS character was found to be controlled by a single, recessive gene that restricts development in seeds with the ds//ds genotype. The apparent phenotypic segregation for seed size in the pods of heterozygous (+//ds) F1 plants was found to be under genetic control.

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