In the transitional climates, warm-season turfgrasses are more heat and drought resistant and require fewer pesticide and fertilizer inputs than cool-season turfgrasses, but an extended winter dormancy period in warm-season turfgrasses makes them less attractive. Our objective was to evaluate color intensity and persistence of colorants applied at two volumes, once or sequentially, on buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) maintained at 2.5 inches and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) maintained at 0.5 inch. Field studies were conducted in Manhattan, KS, and Haysville, KS, from Oct. 2013 to May 2014 on dormant ‘Sharpshooter’ and ‘Cody’ buffalograss and ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass. The colorants Green Lawnger, Endurant, and Wintergreen Plus were applied at 100 or 160 gal/acre in autumn (single application) or autumn plus midwinter (sequential application). Every 2 weeks, visual turf color was rated on a 1 to 9 scale (9 = best) with ratings based on the intensity of the color, not the color (hue) of green. Few differences in color persistence occurred among colorants, but color persisted longer at the higher spray volume. In general, buffalograss receiving a single autumn colorant application had acceptable color (i.e., a visual rating ≥6) for 55–70 days at 100 gal/acre or 55–88 days at 160 gal/acre. Zoysiagrass receiving a single autumn colorant application had acceptable color for 56–97 days at 100 gal/acre or 97–101 days at 160 gal/acre. Across all sites, a sequential midwinter application applied at 160 gal/acre on buffalograss and both application volumes on zoysiagrass provided acceptable green turf color from that point until spring green-up. Most buffalograss plots receiving the sequential midwinter application at 100 gal/acre had acceptable color from that point until spring green-up. Winter color of buffalograss and zoysiagrass can be enhanced by colorant application, and a longer period of acceptable color can be achieved by applying at a higher volume or by including a sequential midwinter treatment.
Ross C. Braun, Jack D. Fry, Megan M. Kennelly, Dale J. Bremer, and Jason J. Griffin
David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) is recognized for its low requirements for pesticide and fertilizer input, but Meyer (Z. japonica Steud.), the cultivar commonly used in the transition zone of the United States, is slow to establish. We evaluated new zoysiagrass progeny for stolon growth characteristics and rate of establishment and determined the relationship between stolon growth characteristics and coverage. ‘Meyer’, DALZ 0102 (a Z. japonica), and 18 progeny from crosses of ‘Emerald’ (Z. japonica × Z. tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele) or a Z. matrella (L.) Merr. × Z. japonica were planted as 6-cm diameter plugs on 30.5 × 30.5-cm centers in 1.5 × 1.5-m plots in 2007 and as single 10-cm diameter plugs in 1.2 × 1.2-m plots in 2008 in Manhattan, KS. Data were collected weekly on number of stolons initiated per plug, stolon elongation, and number of stolon branches. Two researchers rated coverage visually near the end of each growing season. Rate of stolon initiation ranged from 2.2/week to 8.6/week. Elongation rate ranged from 18.8 to 65.1 mm/week. At 11 weeks after planting in 2007, four of 18 progeny had superior coverage to ‘Meyer’; at 11 weeks after planting in 2008, 13 of 18 progeny had superior coverage to ‘Meyer’. Rate of stolon initiation was positively correlated (P < 0.01) with zoysiagrass coverage (r = 0.66, in 2007; r = 0.94 in 2008); likewise, stolon elongation was positively correlated with coverage in 2007 (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and 2008 (r = 0.53, P < 0.05). Stolon initiation or elongation could be used in short-term evaluations to predict rate of zoysiagrass coverage from plugs. Greater stolon initiation or elongation of experimental some zoysiagrass progeny makes them promising for alternatives to ‘Meyer’ for overcoming slow establishment rates.
David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) grown under shade on golf courses and in home lawns is slow to recover from damage and declines in quality over time. We evaluated stolon growth and tillering of ‘Meyer’ and Chinese Common (both Z. japonica Steud.); ‘Zorro’, ‘Diamond’, and ‘Cavalier’ [all Z. matrella L. (Merr.)]; ‘Emerald’ (Z. matrella × Z. pacifica Goudsw.); and six experimental progeny from ‘Emerald’ × Z. japonica and reciprocal crosses of Z. japonica × Z. matrella under silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) shade and in full sun in 2008 and 2009 in Manhattan, KS. A single 6-cm diameter plug was planted in the center of 1.2 m × 1.2-m plots, and data were collected weekly on the number of stolons, stolon elongation, and number of stolon branches. Tiller number was collected at the start and end of each study period, and biomass (excluding roots) was determined at the end of each season. Zoysiagrasses under an average of 76% tree shade exhibited reductions of 38% to 95% in stolon number; 9% to 70% in stolon length; 10% to 93% in stolon branching; and 56% to 98% in biomass. Seven of the 10 grasses exhibited a decline in tiller number in each experiment; none of the grasses differed from ‘Meyer’ in percentage change in tiller number under shade. ‘Emerald’, ‘Cavalier’, ‘Zorro’, and several progeny from crosses between ‘Emerald’ × Z. japonica or reciprocal crosses of Z. matrella × Z. japonica produced more, longer, or more highly branched stolons than ‘Meyer’, suggesting they may have improved recovery potential in shade.