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Hilary A. Sandler

Tihonet mixed, mesic Typic Psammaquent ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008a ). The study was randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a split-plot with five replicates. The vine-harvesting method (pruning or mowing) was the main

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Pamela L. Robinson, Niels Maness, John Solie, and Byron Criner

Sage contains the antioxidant thujone, which can be used to preserve foods in place of synthetic antioxidants. This study was conducted to determine if different harvesting methods would affect greater retention of antioxidant activity (AOA) of sage. The harvesting methods evaluated included sickle harvest, hand harvest, and flail harvest. Harvested samples were air-dried (temperature range 15 to 49C) and oven-dried (continuous 49C). Leaf area analysis indicated that flail harvesting induced substantial chopping and size reduction of the harvested material. AOA of sample extracts was measured using a carotinoid bleaching process against a standard BHT solution. Our results show a definite difference in retention of AOA between the harvesting methods (sickle 65%, hand 55%, flail 50% of BHT). This difference between harvesting methods was the same over the two drying treatments, although oven drying resulted in a decrease in AOA for all harvesting methods. Supported by USDA grant 93-34150-8409 and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.

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Paul W. Teague and Tina Gray Teague

spring field trials conducted over 2 years were used to determine differences in net returns using “cut” (harvested by removing the whole plant near the ground level for a one time over harvest) and “shucked” collards (harvested by removing marketable sized individual leaves using multiple harvests). 'Blue Max' transplants were set 11 March 1991 and 11 Feb 1992 in rows spaced 25.4cm apart on raised beds spaced 1m apart. Four spacing treatments were evaluated (7.62, 15.24, 22.86, and 30.48 cm between plants) in a RCB with 4 replications. Plants were harvested beginning 25 April 1991 and 28 April 1992 once (cut) or over 5 wks (shucked). Yields were higher for shucked collards spaced 15.24cm in both years, but no differences Were observed in cut collards. cut collards provided a higher 1st harvest yield. A system analysis to provide 1000 boxes (9.lkg) of collards/wk was imposed to determine the economics of harvest method. Cost differences Were considered to reflect differences in hectareage required, transplant cost for 4 densities, and a 25% higher harvest cost/box for shucked collards. The shuck harvest method provided an economic advantage over cutting of $9853 and $1671 in 1991 and 1992, respectively, where all production was assumed to come from transplanted collards. when a combination of transplanting and direct seeding was assumed, results indicate an economic advantage to cutting of $680 for the system using 1992 yield data.

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Huating Dou, Mohamed A. Ismail, and Peter. D. Petracek

The effect of clipping vs. pulling, wax application, storage temperature, and fruit size on Stem End Rind Breakdown (SERB) of Valencia oranges was studied in four experiments during the 1998–1999 and 1999–2000 seasons. For harvesting methods, clipping reduced SERB rate of Valencia oranges over pulling from 10.2% to 5.9%. Wax application increased fruit SERB compared to non-waxed fruit. However, there was no consistent difference in effect on SERB incidence between shellac and carnauba waxes in all studies. Small fruit (size 100#) tended to be associated with high incidence of SERB, whereas large fruit (size 64#) were less susceptible to SERB of Valencia oranges. The most significant factor that influenced SERB incidence was storage temperature. Fruit stored at 70 °F had 23% and 96% SERB if fruit were examined in the 2nd and 8th weeks after packing; whereas 0.5% and 2% SERB was found if fruit were stored at 45 °F and examined at the same times. The effect of the above treatments on fruit peel anatomy and postharvest physiological behavior will also be discussed.

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Gavin R. Sills and James Nienhuis

The interactive effects of genotypes, plant population densities, and harvest methods on snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield evaluation were investigated using a split-split plot factorial arrangement of treatments at two locations Six snap bean processing cultivars were grown at 5.5, 11, and 22 plants/m2 and harvested either by machine or by hand. Each' of three commercial seed companies provided two cultivars, one of which was described as “good” and the other as “poor” for machine harvesting. Genotype × harvest method interactions were not significant for pod count, but were significant when yield was evaluated as pod weight. This latter interaction was explained by a single-degree-of-freedom contrast of genotypes × (“good” vs. “poor” harvestability). Genotype × density and genotype × density × location interactions were significant for both pod count and weight. The density × harvest method interaction was nonsignificant for both yield variables. These results suggest that breeders can evaluate yield of genotypes using either hand or machine harvest but should use plant population densities appropriate to commercial production. Optimum plot size for snap bean yield evaluations at these locations under the various conditions imposed were estimated.

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Charles F. Forney

High-quality cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit are required to fulfil the growing markets for fresh fruit. Storage losses of fresh cranberries are primarily the result of decay and physiological breakdown. Maximizing quality and storage life of fresh cranberries starts in the field with good cultural practices. Proper fertility, pest management, pruning, and sanitation all contribute to the quality and longevity of the fruit. Mechanical damage in the form of bruising must be minimized during harvesting and postharvest handling, including storage, grading, and packaging. In addition, water-harvested fruit should be removed promptly from the bog water. Following harvest, fruit should be cooled quickly to an optimum storage temperature of between 2 and 5 °C (35.6 and 41.0 °F). The development of improved handling, refined storage conditions, and new postharvest treatments hold promise to extend the storage life of fresh cranberries.

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Travis R. Alexander, Thomas S. Collins, and Carol A. Miles

achieve a complete data set and to allow for comparison of methodologies. It was expected that the total phenolics of juice and cider would not differ due to harvest method, but the total tannins of juice and cider may differ with longer storage times

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Carol A. Miles and Jaqueline King

. The experimental design was a randomized complete block split plot. The main plot was rootstock (M.27 and EMLA9) and the subplot was harvest method (hand and machine). There were two replicates of the main plot treatment and nine trees per subplot. The

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Kelly T. Morgan, Smita Barkataky, Davie Kadyampakeni, Robert Ebel, and Fritz Roka

on fruit yield by the mechanical harvesting method compared with hand-harvesting ( Hedden et al., 1988 ). Studies have also indicated that well-managed, healthy citrus trees can sustain up to 25% defoliation without reducing canopy growth, fruit yield

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Travis Robert Alexander, Carolyn F. Ross, Emily A. Walsh, and Carol A. Miles

’ fruit did not differ because of harvest method when fully mature fruit were stored for 0, 2, or 4 weeks at 32 or 56 °F. The present study advanced the assessment of mechanical harvest of ‘Brown Snout’ by evaluating cider quality (i.e., the finished