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Ahmed A. Obeidy and M.A.L. Smith

Micrografting is an effective technique for elimination of viruses, early diagnosis of grafting incompatibilities, rejuvenation of mature tissue, and bypassing the juvenile phase in fruit trees. Current micrografting procedures are difficult, impractical, expensive, and generally result in an inefficient rate of successful graft production. In order to alleviate some of these limitations, a unique apparatus was designed to splice the in vitro-derived scion and rootstock together during the micrografting process. The dual-layer device was constructed with a pliant outer layer to facilitate manipulation during the grafting of micro-scale plants, and a delicate, absorbent inner layer to cushion the plant tissue and retain hormones and other compounds. These chemicals are slowly released at the grafting zone to alleviate oxidation and enhance callus formation at the cut surface of scion and rootstock. After healing, it is easy to remove the grafting apparatus from the grafted plant without damaging the tissues. This apparatus may be used to unite a scion and a rootstock with different stem diameters. Shoot-tip cultures of `McIntosh' and `M-7' apple and `North Star' sweet cherry, and in vitro seedlings of lemon, orange and grapefruit were used as a source of in vitro scions and rootstocks. Successful graft unions were developed, and the grafted plants were transplanted into the greenhouse environment Micrografted plants were sectioned to determine the anatomical characteristics of the graft union.

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Ahmed A. Obeidy and M.A.L. Smith

Micrografting is au effective technique for elimination of viruses, early diagnosis of grafting incompatibilities, rejuvenation of mature tissue, and bypassing the juvenile phase in fruit trees. Current micrografting procedures are difficult, impractical, expensive, and generally result in an inefficient rate of successful graft production. To alleviate some of these limitations, a unique apparatus was designed to splice the in vitro-derived scion and rootstock together during the micrografting process. The dual-layer device was constructed with an outer layer of aluminum foil, with flexibility to facilitate manipulation during the grafting of micro-scale plants. A delicate, absorbent inner layer of paper toweling cushions the plant tissue. It also may be treated with hormones and other compounds. After healing, it is easy to remove the grafting apparatus from the grafted plant without damaging the tissues. This apparatus may be used to unite a scion and a rootstock with different stem diameters. Shoot-tip cultures of `McIntosh' and M.7 apple and `North Star' sour cherry, and in vitro seedlings of lemon, orange, and grapefruit were used as a source of in vitro scions and rootstocks. Successful graft unions were developed, and the grafted plants were transplanted into the greenhouse environment.

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Saad B. Javed, Abdulrahman A. Alatar, Mohammad Anis, and Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

tree to fulfil an increasing demand for it, a plant tissue culture technique was attempted using benzyl adenine (BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) ( Javed and Anis, 2015 ). However, TDZ has not been examined for its morphogenic response in this

Open access

Jacqueline Joshua and Margaret T. Mmbaga

culture technique in which bacterial endophytes and fungal pathogens were placed at opposite sides of the petri plates containing both potato dextrose agar (PDA) and NA at 1:1 v/v ratio to support growth of both the fungal pathogens and the bacterial

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Claudia A. Espinosa-Leal and Silverio Garcia-Lara

water or 10% SSW as a solvent. Cultures were placed in a controlled-environment chamber (Signature Diurnal Growth Chamber model 2015; VWR International, Radnor, PA) at 25 °C with a 12:12-h photoperiod [12 h of light at 89.1 µmol·m –2 ·s –1 (Dual

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Chandra Thammina, Mingyang He, Litang Lu, Kaishuang Cao, Hao Yu, Yongqin Chen, Liangtao Tian, Junmei Chen, Richard McAvoy, Donna Ellis, Degang Zhao, Yuejin Wang, Xian Zhang, and Yi Li

diploids. That approach is time-consuming and technically difficult, especially for some woody species. Endosperm in angiosperms is naturally triploid and in vitro culture of endosperm explants has been used as a method for producing triploid plants

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Chunxian Chen, Jude W. Grosser, Milica Ćalović, Patricia Serrano, Gemma Pasquali, Julie Gmitter, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr

hybrids have been produced since the first reports of the technique in the late 1980s. These hybrids have combined parental donors that possess complementary characteristics and have been aimed at specific genetic improvement objectives ( Grosser and

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Lynn Maher and Irwin L. Goldman

is that as few as 1% of bacteria can be identified using traditional culturing techniques. Advances in sequencing technology allow for a greater understanding of the diversity of microbial communities in marine systems, soil, and agricultural

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Richard V. Tyson, Danielle D. Treadwell, and Eric H. Simonne

.V. 2006 A comparison of three different hydroponic sub-systems (gravel bed, floating and nutrient film technique) in an aquaponic test system Aquacult. Intl. 14 539 550 Lim, C. Webster, C.D. 2006 Tilapia: Biology, culture, and nutrition Food Products Press

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Geoffrey Matthew Weaver, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

). The subsequent development of hydroponics during the 1920s ( Gericke, 1921 , 1922 ) and sand-culture techniques in the 1930s ( Biekart and Connors, 1935 ; Eaton, 1931 ) helped establish the principles underlying modern subirrigation systems