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M.D. Orzolek, J.H. Murphy, and L. Otjen

97A ORAL SESSION 11 (Abstr. 072–077) Weed Control

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L.T. Case, H.M. Mathers, and A.F. Senesac

Container production has increased rapidly in many parts of the U.S. over the past 15 years. Container production has been the fastest growing sector in the nursery industry and the growth is expected to continue. Weed growth in container-grown nursery stock is a particularly serious problem, because the nutrients, air, and water available are limited to the volume of the container. The extent of damage caused by weeds is often underestimated and effective control is essential. Various researchers have found that as little as one weed in a small (1 gal) pot affects the growth of a crop. However, even if weeds did not reduce growth, a container plant with weeds is a less marketable product than a weed-free product. Managing weeds in a container nursery involves eliminating weeds and preventing their spread in the nursery, and this usually requires chemical controls. However, chemical controls should never be the only management tools implemented. Maximizing cultural and mechanical controls through proper sanitation and hand weeding are two important means to prevent the spread and regeneration of troublesome weeds. Cultural controls include mulching, irrigation methods (subirrigation), and mix type. Nursery growers estimate that they spend $500 to $4000/acre of containers for manual removal of weeds, depending on weed species being removed. Economic losses due to weed infestations have been estimated at approximately $7000/acre. Reduction of this expense with improved weed control methodologies and understanding weed control would have a significant impact on the industry. Problems associated with herbicide use in container production include proper calibration, herbicide runoff concerns from plastic or gravel (especially when chemicals fall between containers) and the need for multiple applications. As with other crops, off-site movement of pesticides through herbicide leaching, runoff, spray drift, and non-uniformity of application are concerns facing nursery growers. This article reviews some current weed control methods, problems associated with these methods, and possible strategies that could be useful for container nursery growers.

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Warren Roberts, Jim Shrefler, Jim Duthie, Jonathan Edelson, and Wes Watkins

48 POSTER SESSION 1B (Abstr. 007–025) Weed Control—Cross-commodity

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G.D. Leroux, J. Douheret, M. Lanouette, and M. Martel

29 POSTER SESSION 3 Weed Control/Cross-Commodity

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James E. Klett and David Hillock

29 POSTER SESSION 3 Weed Control/Cross-Commodity

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Jo Ann Robbins and Carol Blackburn

48 POSTER SESSION 1B (Abstr. 007–025) Weed Control—Cross-commodity

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, and Gitta Hasing

. However, to provide all of these benefits, landscapes must be installed correctly and properly maintained ( Henry, 1994 ). Weed control is an important component in landscape maintenance from both an aesthetic and biological perspective. From a biological

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, and Gitta Hasing

( Beard and Green, 1994 ). Well-maintained landscapes also have been shown to increase property values ( Henry, 1994 ). Chemical weed control in landscape planting beds presents unique challenges not present in cropping systems. First, herbicides that are

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Scott Dunn, David Staats, and James E. Klett

48 POSTER SESSION 1B (Abstr. 007–025) Weed Control—Cross-commodity

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Nihat Tursun, Bekir Bükün, Sinan Can Karacan, Mathieu Ngouajio, and Hüsrev Mennan

production techniques that could help reduce or eliminate synthetic herbicide use ( Baumann et al., 2000 ). Integrated weed management (IWM) combines preventive and curative weed control methods, based on ecological principles, to address environmental and