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Lauren C. Garner

introductory pomology class provided a sound pedagogical approach to teach horticultural techniques while also meeting broader university learning objectives, including fostering critical thinking, communication, teamwork, and community involvement. Materials

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Jules Janick

varying success. The present workshop, History of Hawaiian Pomology, sponsored by the History of Horticultural Science and Pomology Working Groups, explored three famous fruit and nut crops of Hawaii: pineapple (oral presentation by Johnny Lopez), papaya

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Gayle M. Volk, James W. Olmstead, Chad E. Finn, and Jules Janick

has had an enormous influence on pomology and horticulture. Trait improvements have been associated with characters that are beneficial to consumers such as the improvement of edible quality and appearance and to growers, packers, and processors such

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Young-Sik Park, Sang-Hyun Lim, and Jae-Yun Heo

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Jae-Yun Heo and Sung-Min Park

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Murat Seker, Kenan Kaynas, Ahmet Yilmaz, and Uygar Us

In this study, we described some tree and fruit characteristics of a novel white nectarine type. The genetic diversity within this white nectarine population was investigated using six enzyme systems and its isozyme variation was also compared with common peach and nectarine cultivars. The results demonstrated that there was a significant variation within the white nectarine population in terms of plant and fruit characteristics probably due to the repropagation of the white nectarines using seedlings by growers. This variation was also verified by isozyme polymorphisms. Plants characteristics of white nectarines were similar to the trees of common peach or nectarine cultivars. However, the white nectarines produce less yield than the common peach or nectarine cultivars and they have small fruit with white-cream color and small flesh ratio making their fruit less attractive. We believe that the white nectarines have high market value and consumer acceptance because of its unique flavor which was confused with taste of either plums or apricots. So far, no standard white nectarine cultivar has been reported. This is the first report characterizing some plant and fruit characteristics of white nectarines which could be used for breeding of standard white nectarine cultivars with high yield and fruit characteristics while keeping its unique flavor. In addition, the white nectarines represent a novel source of germplasm for improvement of peaches and nectarines.

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Mark Rieger

At the University of Georgia, HORT 3020 (Introduction to Fruit Crops) is a two-credit survey of the botanical characteristics, taxonomy, and production practices of the world's major fruit crops. It is offered via traditional classroom instruction, and as a distance education (DE) course through the University System of Georgia Independent Study program. The DE version of the course is designed to be identical in content, final exam, and grading scale. However, due to the nature of independent study, the end-of-topic evaluations are open-book, written assignments in the DE course, whereas students in the classroom version have closed-book quizzes at the end of each topic. Student performance in the two versions of the course was compared over a 3-year period (May 1998 to May 2001) by analyzing scores on end-of-topic evaluations, final exams, and overall course grades. Students in the DE version had higher scores on end-of-topic evaluations in all 3 years, higher scores on a comprehensive final exam in 2 of 3 years, and consequently higher overall course grades than classroom students in all 3 years. Better performance of DE over classroom students may have been related to 1) qualitative differences in end-of-topic evaluations (written assignments versus quizzes), 2) differences in student demographics (nontraditional students in DE, traditional undergraduates in classroom), 3) the elective (DE) versus required (classroom) nature of the courses, or 4) differences in course duration (1 year for DE, 15 weeks for classroom). Equal or better performance of DE students suggests that survey courses such as Introduction to Fruit Crops can be offered via distance education without compromising learning outcomes.

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Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo, Ana M. Ramos-Cabrer, Javier Ascasíbar-Errasti, and Juan Piñeiro-Andión

Spain is the 15th largest apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) producer in the world with production depending mainly on foreign cultivars. During the 1970s, a germplasm bank of local cultivars was established in Galicia with the aim of preserving the local resources of northwestern Spain. A total of 408 accessions were studied using 89 morphological characters, with 15 corresponding to phenology, 46 to fruit, 7 to flowers, 11 to leaves, 6 to pests and 4 to diseases. Three variable isoenzymes, PGM E.C., PGI E.C. and EST E.C., were analyzed for 405 accessions and 27 commercial cultivars. The main objectives of this work were 1) to evaluate the inter- and intracultivar variability using morphological characters and isoenzymes, 2) to classify the accessions according to the main sources of variability, and 3) to identify repetitions in the germplasm bank. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed six main sources of variability in the following order: size of fruit, color of skin, acidity, sweetness, harvest time, and attractiveness. The PCA analysis across 350 accessions produced 42 morphological groups. The 3 isoenzymes produced 190 genotype clusters. Combining morphological classification with the isoenzyme genotypes, we found 31 groups of synonyms involving 82 accessions and 8 more possible groups involving 17 accessions. This result allows the elimination of 53 repetitive accessions from the germplasm bank. Six commercial cultivars were identified as the progenitors of eighteen accessions: `Reineta Blanca' of seven, `Reina de Reinetas' of two, `Reineta de Caux' of eight and `Golden Delicious', `Golden 4187' or `Ozark Gold' of one each. Because inter- and intracultivar variability was high and names given by the growers were not reliable, the suggested selection strategy is to select individual clones among and within cultivars to exploit both the inter- and intracultivar genetic variability.

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Mustafa Ozgen, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Ann M. Chanon, Nithya Janakiraman, R. Neil Reese, A. Raymond Miller, and Joseph C. Scheerens

Poster Session 16—Pomology 1 28 July 2006, 12:00–12:45 p.m.