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Craig Hardner, João Costa e Silva, Emlyn Williams, Noel Meyers, and Cameron McConchie

-supported breeding program to develop new cultivars adapted specifically to the Australian production environments was identified in the early 1990s ( Hardner and McConchie, 1999 ; Stephenson, 1990b ; Winks, 1983 ). The Australian macadamia breeding program adopted

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Mengmeng Zhang, He Huang, Qing Wang, and Silan Dai

chrysanthemum germplasm resources. Chrysanthemum cultivars are genetically highly heterozygous, so conventional crossbreeding between parental cultivars with contrasting target traits is still the most effective way to breed new cultivars ( Teixeira da Silva et

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Michelle Wirthensohn

laboratory. Larger tertiary trials (100 trees each) are planted in all major almond-growing regions in Australia (Riverland, Sunraysia, and Riverina). Table 1 shows the main traits of each of the new cultivars. Chemical composition of the kernels was

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Jer-Chia Chang

were averaged at 24.8 to 26.3 kg per plant. With the improved fruit quality and comparable yield, ‘Miaoli No. 1’ is an exciting candidate for mulberry growers looking for new cultivars to replace ‘46C019’ and to exploit the economic potential of

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Margaret R. Pooler

The U.S. National Arboretum has released over 650 new plant cultivars since it was established in 1927. A key to the success of the plant breeding program has been the voluntary participation of universities and private nurseries in evaluating and propagating new plant material. The cooperative evaluation and stock increase programs play a critical role in the successful testing, introduction, and distribution of new cultivars of landscape trees and shrubs. These integrated cooperative programs depend on the involvement of nurserymen, researchers, botanic gardens, or individuals to evaluate potential new cultivars under diverse climatic conditions and hardiness zones, and wholesale propagation nurseries to increase stock of those cultivars destined for release.

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Kyung Ku Shim, Y.M. Ha, J.B. Lee, K.O. Byun, Y. Youn, E.R. Noh, and H.R. Park

New cultivars, `SKK 1' and `SKK 2', of Korean mountain ash (Sorbus alnifolia) that had superior morphological features as woody landscape plants were selected from 5000 seedlings of Sorbus alnifolia. Two clones with genetic variation were selected from 1983 to 1994 as landscape plants with large leaf and unique tree form: `SKK 1', which had large leaf and flower, and `SKK 2', with semi-weeping tree form. New selected cultivars of S. alnifolia were successfully grafted and inherited their mother characteristics. Sorbus alnifolia was difficult to propagate by cutting. Therefore, in vitro propagation methods might be used to propagate the superior cultivars. Shoots with apical and axillary buds were excised from 1-year-old seedlings. The explants were cultured on WPM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Shoots formed from initial cultures were subcultured at ≈4-week intervals onto the same media. To know the best hormone concentration in shoot multiplication, 0.1–3.0 mg/L of BA and 0.1–1.0 mg/L of zeatin were added to each WPM and MS media. The best shoot proliferation and elongation were obtained on MS medium with 1.0 mg/L BA from the whole shoot with the callus-like tissue, whereas the worst results were obtained from shoot tip. A 13-fold proliferation rate was achieved every 4 weeks.

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M. Joseph Stephens, Peter A. Alspach, Ron A. Beatson, Chris Winefield, and Emily J. Buck

combining ability for machine-harvest and also for selection for machine-harvest yield early in the development of new cultivars. In the red raspberry pairwise genetic study described by Stephens et al. (2012) , two plants within each plot of six full

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Yijun Yin, Xueli Cui, Lulu Zhang, Yunfei Mao, Xiafei Su, YePing Liu, Huiling Pang, and Xiang Shen

. The independent breeding of new cultivars started late; therefore, the plants were domesticated from the introduction of European and North American ornamental crabapple cultivars ( Dixon et al., 2015 ). Genealogical analyses have indicated that the

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Lulu Zhang, Yunfei Mao, Yunyun Wang, Lu Yang, Yijun Yin, Xiang Shen, Canhong Zhang, and Duojiao Zhang

4 years of repeated propagation, observation, and selection, every individual showed stable and prominent yellow-leaf characteristics. On 11 Dec. 2018, the new cultivar was designated ‘Duojiao’ by the Forestry and Grassland Administration of China

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Junjun Fan, Wangxiang Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Ting Zhou, Hao Jiang, Guibin Wang, and Fuliang Cao

be introduced. Although many professional and independent breeders are working on flowering crabapple breeding in the United States, China, and several other countries, the yield of new cultivars has been limited in recent years. There is still a