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Mahrizal, L. Lanier Nalley, Bruce L. Dixon, and Jennie Popp

The mounting concerns about food safety, health, environmental, and social welfare issues have increased demand for organic cocoa products in high-income countries. Euromonitor International [as cited in International Cocoa Organization (ICCO

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Darin A. Sukha, Pathmanathan Umaharan, and David R. Butler

the chocolate made from these pods, they acknowledged that a link to flavor and pollen donor was needed but was outside the scope of their study. The only previous works attempting to link flavor to pollen donor effects in cocoa were that of

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C.M. Ronning, R.J. Schnell, and D.N. Kuhn

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. This research was funded by a grant from the American Cocoa Research Institute (ACRI). Plant material was provided by Jorge Morera, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE

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Madhu Aneja, Thomas Gianfagna, Edward Ng, and Ignacio Badilla

The causes of poor fruit set of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in the greenhouse were studied by examining factors that may influence pollen germination. Hand pollination of cocoa flowers resulted in 45.8% fruit set when flowers were pollinated within 3 hours of anthesis. Pollen germination did not occur until about 6 hours after pollination. Later pollinations (7 to 9 hours after anthesis) or earlier pollinations (16 to 18 hours before anthesis) did not lead to fruit set. Cocoa pollen did not germinate in vitro unless the excised flowers were incubated for 6 hours at 25C in closed vials. During the incubation period, CO2accumulated to a final concentration of about 85 ml·liter-1 as a result of respiration. Ethylene production was not detectable. Incubation of flowers with a NaOH-saturated wick, to absorb CO2, prevented pollen germination in vitro. Incubation of flowers at 15C also prevented pollen germination in vitro at 25C. Hand pollination of flowers 7 to 9 hours after anthesis or 16 to 18 hours before anthesis using CO2-incubated pollen resulted in about 10% fruit set. Enclosed pollinations in vivo, in which CO2 was allowed to accumulate, resulted in nearly 100% fruit set. The initial failure to set fruit from hand pollinations may result from poor or slow pollen germination. Moreover, CO,-incubated pollen might be used to increase fruit set in cocoa by extending the effective pollination period.

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Ricardo Goenaga, Mark Guiltinan, Siela Maximova, Ed Seguine, and Heber Irizarry

2012 ( Lindell, 2012 ). However, it is estimated that diseases in cacao production cause losses of potential crop amounting to 43% in America, 20% in Africa, 13% in Oceania, and 9% in Asia ( International Cocoa Organization, 2013 ; Willson, 1999 ). To

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Samantha Jay Forbes, Guiliana Mustiga, Alberto Romero, Tobin David Northfield, Smilja Lambert, and Juan Carlos Motamayor

and dried, these seeds constitute the raw product cocoa upon which the chocolate industry is based ( Leal et al., 2008 ). The need to increase crop productivity and farmer income ( Edwin and Masters, 2005 ; Gockowski and Sonwa, 2011 ), as well as a

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Antonio Figueira, Jules Janick, Morris Levy, and Peter Goldsbrough

Genetic similarities among eight Theobroma and two Herrania species, including 29 genotypes of T. cacao, were estimated by rDNA polymorphism. A phenogram based on these genetic similarities significantly separated two clusters: one cluster included all Herrania and Theobroma species, except T. cacao, while the second contained 28 of 29 T. cacao genotypes. There was no clear distinction between Herrania and Theobroma species. Separation of 29 T. cacao genotypes, representing all races and various origins, had no congruency with the conventional classification into three horticultural races: Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario. Genetic similarities in T. cacao, estimated with RAPD markers, indicated continuous variation among the generally similar but heterogeneous genotypes. The wild genotypes formed an outgroup distinct from the cultivated genotypes, a distinction supported by the rDNA data. The phenograms constructed from RAPD and rDNA data were not similar within the wild and cultivated cacao subsets.

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Modeste Kan Kouassi, Jane Kahia, Christophe N’guessan Kouame, Mathias Gnion Tahi, and Edmond Kouablan Koffi

Cocoa ( T. cacao ) is a neotropical, small, evergreen tree and native to the undergrowth of the Amazon forest (South America), and belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is cultivated around the world, for its seeds mainly used in the manufacture of

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Harry C. Bittenbender, Loren D. Gautz, Ed Seguine, and Jason L. Myers

fermentation and cocoa liquor quality. Those efforts evolved into the CTAHR CBS. Materials and methods Plant materials. The CBS was evaluated using pods harvested from variety trials at four sites on Oahu island, HI; these ranged from full sun, irrigated sites

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Jane Kahia, Siaka Kone, Lucien Diby, Georges Ngoran, Colombe Dadjo, and Christophe Kouame

Cacao ( Theobroma cacao , Malvaceae) is a crop of major importance for the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and ecosystems in many tropical regions. About 72% of the world’s cocoa is produced in Africa, with Côte d’Ivoire being the top producer at