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Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

such as flavonoids (e.g., rutin and anthocyanins), other phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, saponins, etc., which have biological and medicinal impact on human health ( Hartung et al., 1990 ). However, asparagus decline is a serious and increasing

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Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

Asparagus decline is a serious and increasing threat in asparagus producing regions over the world ( Hamel et al., 2005 ; Knaflewski et al., 2008 ; Reid et al., 2001 ; Wong and Jeffries, 2006 ). It is supposed to be caused by the contribution of

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Lincoln C. Peirce and Heather G. Miller

Several cinnamic acids have been identified as principal toxic components of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) root autotoxin and have been shown to synergize Fusarium infection of asparagus. The basis for this synergism was studied by exposing asparagus seeds and radicles from pregerminated seeds to ferulic (FA), caffeic (CA), or methylenedioxycinnamic (MDA) acids alone and in combinations of two or three of these acids. After treatment, seeds were placed in pots of peat-lite mix, and, depending on the experiment, all or half were inoculated with F. oxysporum (Schlecht) f. sp. asparagi (Cohen). Seedling emergence from each pot was used as a measure of toxicity. All cinnamic acids at 1% suppressed emergence compared with the control. Solutions combining FA and CA (0.5%/0.5%, v/v) were substantially more toxic than 1% solutions of either alone. Exposure of radicles (early postgermination) for 10 minutes to combined FA/CA before planting decreased emergence from pots, whereas emergence following a 10-minute exposure to 1% CA or FA alone did not differ from the controls. The 2-hour exposure to FA or to FA/CA and the 24-hour exposure to CA, FA, or FA/CA decreased emergence, with toxicity progressing as follows: CA < FA < FA/CA. Root tip squashes showed fewer mitotic figures in treated than in untreated radicles, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of the radicle epidermis revealed damage to the surface of epidermal cells and precocious root hair development, the extent of which paralleled treatment toxicity.

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Rumana Yeasmin, Stephen P. Bonser, Satoru Motoki, and Eiji Nishihara

Asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) is a well-managed/assisted crop, with good water and nutrient availability ( Yeasmin et al., 2013 ). Asparagus decline is associated with both abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors associated with the

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Bernard H. Zandstra, Sylvia Morse, Rodney V. Tocco, and Jarrod J. Morrice

. 9 768 772 Heap, I. 2012 International survey of herbicide resistant weeds. 16 Jan. 2012. < http://www.weedscience.org/In.asp > Keulder, P.C. 1999 Asparagus decline and replant problem: A review of the current situation and approaches for future

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Erik J. Landry and David J. Wolyn

physiology of less fall dormant, winter hardy alfalfa selections Crop Sci. 43 1441 1447 Hartung, A. Stephens, C. 1983 Effects of allelopathic substances produced by asparagus on incidence and severity of asparagus decline due to Fusarium crown rot J. Chem