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Mauricio A. Cañoles, Randolph M. Beaudry, Chuanyou Li, and Gregg Howe

Six-carbon aldehydes and alcohols formed by tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf and fruit tissue following disruption are believed to be derived from the degradation of lipids and free fatty acids. Collectively, these C-6 volatiles comprise some of the most important aroma impact compounds. If fatty acids are the primary source of tomato volatiles, then an alteration in the fatty acid composition such as that caused by a mutation in the chloroplastic omega-3-fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD), referred to as LeFAD7, found in the mutant line of `Castlemart' termed Lefad7, would be reflected in the volatile profile of disrupted leaf and fruit tissue. Leaves and fruit of the Lefad7 mutant had ≈10% to 15% of the linolenic acid (18:3) levels and about 1.5- to 3-fold higher linoleic acid (18:2) levels found in the parent line. Production of unsaturated C-6 aldehydes Z-3-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, and E-2-hexenal and the alcohol Z-3-hexenol derived from 18:3 was markedly reduced in disrupted leaf and fruit tissue of the Lefad7 mutant line. Conversely, the production of the saturated C-6 aldehyde hexanal and its alcohol, hexanol, were markedly higher in the mutant line. The shift in the volatile profile brought about by the loss of chloroplastic FAD activity in the Lefad7 line was detected by sensory panels at high significance levels (P < 0.0005) and detrimentally affected fruit sensory quality. The ratios and amounts of C-6 saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols produced by tomato were dependent on substrate levels, suggesting that practices that alter the content of linoleic and linolenic acids or change their ratios can influence tomato flavor.

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S.A. Balch, C.B. McKenney, and D.L. Auld

The oil of evening primrose (Oenothera sp.) is an important source of gammalinolenic acid (GLA). GLA [C18:3Δ6,9,12] is an unsaturated fatty acid in demand for its nutritional and pharmaceutical application. Oenothera biennis L. is the primary commercial source of evening primrose oil. A study was conducted to determine if species of Oenothera, adapted to Texas, produce GLA levels comparable to O. biennis. This project identified and evaluated the fatty acid composition of eight species of evening primrose native to Texas. GLA levels of 54 accessions evaluated from collected seed ranged from 0.0% to 11.0%. Field experiments were then conducted to determine oil content, fatty acid composition, seed yield, and potential adaptation to commercial production of selected accessions. Mean GLA levels of cultivated seed from these accessions ranged from 0.0% to 10.1%. Mean seed oil content ranged from 7.3% to 21.7%. Of the species examined, O. elata subsp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Watson) W. Dietrich and O. jamesii (Torrey & Gray) demonstrated GLA levels and seed yields adequate for commercial production. Based on these results, O. elata subsp. hirsutissima and O. jamesii demonstrated sufficiently high GLA levels, oil content, and seed yields to be considered for commercial production.

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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez, and José Antonio Franco

were alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) (13.5–48.1 mg/100 g FW), linoleic acid (LA) (1.5–6.5 mg/100 g FW), palmitic acid (4.5–26.1 mg/100 g FW), and stearic acid (0.8–3.2 mg/100 g FW). Smaller amounts of myristic acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid

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Yuting Zou, Yanan Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Shuxian Li, and Qiuyue Ma

oil content of the seeds, 90.0% of which is unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Among the UFAs, α-linolenic acid is the predominant type, accounting for 42.7% of the total content, which is substantially greater than that of traditional oil crops, such as

Open access

Guanxing Hu, Chao Gao, Xiaoming Fan, Wenfang Gong, and Deyi Yuan

acid contents. The palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acid contents of the seeds varied with the pollen source. The variation in oleic acid content was not significant ( Table 4 ). The palmitic acid contents of HS and HJ were not significantly

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Monrudee Kittikorn, Katsuya Okawa, Hitoshi Ohara, Satoru Kondo, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Masato Wada, Mineyuki Yokoyama, Ohji Ifuku, Ariake Murata, and Naoharu Watanabe

Endogenous α-ketol linolenic acid levels in short day-induced cotyledons are closely related to flower induction in Pharbitis nil Plant Cell Physiol. 44 35 43 Tamaki, S. Matsuo, S. Wong, H.L. Yukoi, S. Shimamoto, K. 2007 Hd3a protein is a mobile flowering

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Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

, four major fatty acids were identified and quantified. There were two SFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0) stearic acid (C18:0), and two UFAs, containing linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). As shown in Fig. 4 , the palmitic acid content

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Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek, and Young-Sang Lee

.22%), palmitic (20.31% to 25.69%), and linolenic (7.27% to 16.00%) acids. The high compositional ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acid) in pepper fruits is useful for human health because these fatty acids are responsible for reducing

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Yan Li, Hongyan Qi, Yazhong Jin, Xiaobin Tian, Linlin Sui, and Yan Qiu

-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ( A , B ) linoleic acid, ( C , D ) linolenic acid, and ( E , F ) oleic acid in flesh tissue of ‘Caihong7’ (left) and ‘Tianbao’ (right) oriental sweet melon fruit during storage at room temperature (23 °C) for up to 15 d. Values are

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Diheng Zhong, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang

’. Genotypic variations and drought responses as related to unsaturated fatty acid composition. Three unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), primarily membrane lipid components [palmitoleic acid (C16:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3)], were