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Wesley R. Autio

`Summerland Red McIntosh' apple trees propagated on M.9/A.2,O.3, M.7 EMLA, M.26 EMLA, M.7A. OAR1, or Mark rootstocks were planted in 1985 in a randomized complete block design with seven replications. Fruit ripening and quality were assessed in 1988-93. Internal ethylene concentrations were measured weekly throughout each harvest season. Once each season, fruit weight, starch-index value, soluble solids concentration, flesh firmness, and surface ted color were assessed on a sample of fruit from each tree. Size was smallest for fruit from trees on OAR1 or Mark, after accounting for the effects of crop load with analysis of covariance. Surface ted color was greatest for fruit from trees on Mark and least for fruit from trees on M.7 EMLA. Ripening was variable, but generally, fruit from trees on 0.3 ripened first, and fruit from trees on M.7 EMLA or M.7A ripened last. Crop load impacted ripening, but its effects were removed with analysis of covariance.

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Wesley R. Autio

In 1990, a trial was established at 17 locations in the United States and Canada including the scions `Golden Delicious', `Jonagold', `Empire', and `Rome” and the rootstocks M.9 EMLA, B.9, Mark, O.3, and M.26 EMLA. In 1994, trees on M.26 EMLA were the largest and trees on B.9 and those on Mark were the smallest, regardless of scion. Trees on M.9 EMLA were intermediate. `Golden Delicious' and `Empire” trees on O.3 were larger than those on M.9 EMLA. `Jonagold' and `Rome' trees on O.3 were similar in size to those on M.9 EMLA. With all scions, B.9 and Mark resulted in the lowest cumulative yields. With `Jonagold', `Empire', or `Rome' as the scion, O.3, M.26 EMLA, and M.9 EMLA resulted in the greatest and similar yields. With `Golden Delicious' as the scion, however, trees on M.9 EMLA yielded only as much as those on B.9 or Mark. Trees on B.9 and those on Mark were the most yield-efficient, regardless of scion. `Golden Delicious' and `Rome' trees on O.3 were similar to those on B.9 and those on Mark, but `Jonagold' and `Empire' trees on O.3 were less efficient than those on B.9 or on Mark. Overall, M.26 EMLA resulted in the lowest efficiency; however, M.9 EMLA resulted in more efficient trees only with `Empire' as the scion. Participants include: J.L. Anderson (Utah), W.R. Autio (Mass.), J.A. Barden (Va.), G.R. Brown (Ky.), P.A. Domoto (Iowa), D.C. Ferree (Ohio), A. Gaus (Colo.), R.L. Granger (Quebec), R.A. Hayden (Ind.), F. Morrison (Kan.), C.A. Mullins (Tenn.), S.C. Myers (Ga.), R.L. Perry (Mich.), C.R. Rom (Ark.), J.R. Schupp (Maine), and L.D. Tukey (Pa.).

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Wesley R. Autio

In 1990, trials were established at 13 sites including `Golden Delicious', `Jonagold', `Empire', and `Rome' apple cultivars in all combinations on M.9 EMLA, B.9, Mark, O.3, and M.26 EMLA rootstocks. After 10 growing seasons, rootstock and cultivar interacted significantly to affect trunk cross-sectional area and yield efficiency but not yield per tree or survival. Generally, trunk cross-sectional area was greatest for M.26 EMLA, followed by O.3, M.9 EMLA, B.9, and Mark. However, differences between B.9 and Mark and between M.9 EMLA and O.3 varied with cultivar. B.9 was 34% to 46% larger than Mark with `Golden Delicious' and `Empire,' but they were similar for `Jonagold' and `Rome.' O.3 was 27% larger than M.9 EMLA with `Golden Delicious' and `Empire,' they were similar for `Rome', and O.3 was 12% smaller than M.9 EMLA with `Jonagold'. M.26 EMLA resulted in the greatest cumulative yield per tree, followed by O.3, M.9 EMLA, B.9, and Mark. Generally, cumulative yield efficiency (1992–99) was greatest B.9 and Mark and least for M.26 EMLA. M.9 EMLA and O.3 were similar and intermediately efficient. However, differences between B.9 and Mark and between M.9 EMLA and O.3 varied with cultivar. M.9 EMLA and O.3 were similarly efficient with `Golden Delicious', `Jonagold', and `Rome,' but M.9 EMLA was 11% more efficient than O.3 with `Empire'. B.9 and Mark were similarly efficient with `Golden Delicious' and `Jonagold', but Mark was 15% more efficient and 25% less efficient than B.9 trees with `Empire' and `Rome', respectively. Site played an important role, but survival was best for B.9 and poorest for O.3. Cooperators included: J.L. Anderson, W. Autio, J. Barden, G. Brown, R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, A. Erb, D. Ferree, A. Gaus, R. Hayden, P. Hirst, F. Morrison, C. Mullins, J. Schupp, and L. Tukey.

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Wesley R. Autio

The effects of rootstock on `Delicious' (Malus domestics Borkh.) apple ripening, quality, size, mineral composition, and storability were studied over 4 years. Removal of the effects of crop load by analysis of covariance suggested that M.27 EMLA advanced fruit ripening and that M.7 EMLA delayed fruit ripening. Ott.3, M.9, MAC 9, OAR 1, M.9 EMLA, and M.26 EMLA either were inconsistent in their effects on ripening or consistently-resulted in an intermediate time of ripening. Fruit size consistently was largest from trees on M.9 EMLA and smallest from trees on OAR 1. Fruit from trees on MAC 9 generally had relatively high Ca contents, and fruit from trees on OAR 1 had relatively low Ca concentrations. The effects of rootstock on storability appeared to be related to their effects on maturity arid Ca levels.

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Wesley R. Autio

The effects of rootstock on `Delicious' apple maturity, quality, size, mineral composition, and storability were studied over a 4-year period. Removing the effects of crop load and crop load within year by analysis of covariance produced results suggesting that M.27 EMLA and Ott.3 advanced fruit maturity and that M.7 EMLA delayed fruit maturity. M.9, MAC 9, OAR 1, M.9 EMLA, and M.26 EMLA either were inconsistent in their effect on maturity or consistently resulted in an intermediate maturity. Size, after adjusting for the effects of crop load and crop load within year, was consistently high for fruit from trees on M.9 EMLA, and lowest for fruit from trees on OAR 1. After adjusting for fruit size, fruit from trees on MAC 9 generally had high Ca contents, and fruit from trees on OAR 1 had low Ca contents. The effect of rootstock on storability appeared to be secondary and related to maturity and Ca level.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were notched with a hacksaw blade by removing a 2-mm-wide strip of bark from directly above a bud. The cut extended down to the secondary xylem and around about one-third of the circumference of the stem. The most effective time to notch was ≈2 to 4 weeks before full bloom. Notching was most effective at inducing shoot growth from buds on the top of a branch, less effective for buds on the side, and least effective for buds on the underside of a branch. On untreated controls, the most shoots grew from the upper one-third of 1- or 2-year-old growth, and very few shoots developed buds on the lower one-third. If a bud was notched, however, the pattern was similar and incidence of shoot development was high. The percentage of notched buds that developed into shoots was not influenced by wood age.There was a positive, linear relationship between bud size and the percentage of buds growing into lateral shoots and between bud size and the length of those lateral shoots. Over all years, experiments, and cultivars, notching increased shoot production ≈600%.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

A series of experiments were initiated to evaluate the influence of notching on improving lateral branching of young apple trees. Buds on 2-year-old wood of `Redspur' Delicious/MM.111 were notched at 2-week intervals from 6 weeks before bloom to 2 weeks after. Notching increased lateral branching cubically with the greatest response occurring when notching was done 2 to 4 weeks before bloom. Bud break occurred equally well and shoots grew comparably when `Redcort'/M.7 were notched at the tip, middle, or base. Bud break and shoot growth from unnotched buds was greatest at the tip, intermediate in the middle and least at the base. Limbs of `Spygold'/M.7 were spread to a 45 degree angle then one bud from each l-year-old shoot was notched at either the top, side or on the bottom of the shoot. Notching increased lateral branching from all bud positions, but the greatest response was from buds notched at the top and least from those located at the bottom of a branch. Buds of `Marshall McIntosh' were notched on either 1 or 2-year-old wood. Notching increased lateral branching more on 2-year than on 1-year old wood.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

A series of experiments were initiated to evaluate the influence of notching on improving lateral branching of young apple trees. Buds on 2-year-old wood of `Redspur' Delicious/MM.111 were notched at 2-week intervals from 6 weeks before bloom to 2 weeks after. Notching increased lateral branching cubically with the greatest response occurring when notching was done 2 to 4 weeks before bloom. Bud break occurred equally well and shoots grew comparably when `Redcort'/M.7 were notched at the tip, middle, or base. Bud break and shoot growth from unnotched buds was greatest at the tip, intermediate in the middle and least at the base. Limbs of `Spygold'/M.7 were spread to a 45 degree angle then one bud from each l-year-old shoot was notched at either the top, side or on the bottom of the shoot. Notching increased lateral branching from all bud positions, but the greatest response was from buds notched at the top and least from those located at the bottom of a branch. Buds of `Marshall McIntosh' were notched on either 1 or 2-year-old wood. Notching increased lateral branching more on 2-year than on 1-year old wood.

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Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio

There is a general increase in interest in planting new apple cultivars. Promising new apple cultivars have been identified from around the world and from breeding programs in Arkansas, British Columbia, New York, New Jersey and the PRI Program. Trees were propagated and planted in a cultivar evaluation block at the University of Massachusetts Horticultural Research Center. Fruit assessment consisted of laboratory analysis and visual and sensory evaluation. Fruit were rated and several cultivars were identified as showing extreme promise and being worthy of further evaluation. These apple cultivars include: Sansa, Ginger Gold, Honeycrisp, BC 8M 15-10, BC 17-30, Arlet (Swiss Gourmet), NY 75414-1, NY 429, Golden Supreme and SunCrisp (NJ 55). The strong and weak points of each cultivars will be discussed.

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Wesley R. Autio and Duane W. Greene

Studies were conducted in 1989 to determine the effects of crop load and percent harvested on apple ripening. Twenty-seven `Golden Delicious' trees were selected and partitioned into 9 blocks. The crop load on one tree in each block was adjusted to 3.4, 6.9, or 15.0 fruit cm-1 trunk circumference in late June. Internal ethylene was measured in 6-fruit samples taken from each tree on 25 Sept., 2, 9, and 16 Oct. Increasing crop load had a significant linear effect on delaying ripening. Approximately 11 days separated the ripening of fruit from the 3.4 fruit cm-1 and the 15.0 fruit cm-1 treatments. In a second experiment, 18 `McIntosh' trees with similar crop load were partitioned into 6 blocks. Forty percent of the crop was harvested from 1 tree and 80% from another in each block on 7 Sept. Internal ethylene was measured on 7, 14, 21, and 28 Sept. Increasing the portion of the crop initially harvested linearly delayed subsequent fruit ripening. Approximately 6 days separated the ripening of fruit from the control and the 80%-removal treatments.