An Ipomoea accession from Indonesia, originally classified as I. trifida, was found to segregate in flower morphology. It was hypothesized to be either a very close relative of I. batatas (6x sweetpotato), or a hybrid between I. batatas (6x) and I. trifida (2x). Twelve seedlings of this accession were grown and precise measurements of sepal angle, corolla shape, and root morphology were taken. Samples were also compared on the DNA level using molecular markers. Based on morphological measurements, it was found that some individual seedlings of the unknown Ipomoea accession were not significantly different than I. batatas; others were not significantly different than I. trifida. The control I. batatas and I. trifida lines were significantly different from each other. DNA flow cytometry was used to determine that all seedlings were diploids with the same amount of DNA per cell. Overall plant morphology and molecular analysis confirmed that all of the seedlings were very closely related and the segregation in flower morphology was not due to a seed mixture. This data is consistent with the hypothesis that the accession is a hybrid between I. batatas and I. trifida.
J.R. Bohac and S. Rajapakse
M. Hubbard, J. Kelly, S. Rajapakse, A. Abbott, and R. Ballard
We have identified cloned rose DNA fragments that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in rose (Rosa ×hybrida) cultivars. RFLP can be used as genetic markers for identification, certification, and patent protection. By comparing RFLP patterns for each of six probes, we have been able to characterize eight cultivars. These results confirm that RFLP analyses are useful for rose cultivar identification and may provide a means for protecting patent rights to new cultivars.
Zhen-Xiang Lu, G.L. Reighard, W.V. Baird, A.G. Abbott, and S. Rajapakse
Eighteen peach rootstock cultivars, most of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, were screened for diagnostic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers using synthetic decamer oligonucleotide primers. Twenty of the 80 primers were informative, and 40 amplified DNA bands from the informative primers were selected as RAPD markers. Based on combined banding patterns, all 18 rootstock cultivars were identified with only six of the 20 informative primers. Cluster analysis of the 18 peach rootstock cultivars using 40 RAPD markers produced a dendrogram of genetic relatedness in good agreement with their putative pedigrees. The first major bifurcation in the dendrogram divided these rootstock cultivars into two groups according to their resistance or susceptibility to root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood].
Bryon Sosinski, W.V. Baird, S. Rajapakse, R.E. Ballard, and A.G. Abbott
We have developed a highly saturated genetic linkage map in peach (diploid, 2n = 16) using two separate crosses. The first population consists of 48 randomly selected F2 individuals which were generated by selfing an F1 from the cross of `New Jersey Pillar' x KV 77119. This progeny set exhibits segregation for gross morphological traits including: canopy shape, fruit flesh color, and flower petal color, size, and number. The second population contains 48 F2 progeny derived from the cross of `Suncrest' x `Bailey'. These progeny segregate for quality traits such as fruit diameter, weight, flesh color, cling vs. free stone, soluble solids, pH of juice extract, and fruit developmental period. Nine linkage groups were identified in the first cross, which cover 590 cM of the genome. In the second cross, eight linkage groups were found that contain several significant chromosomal intervals contributing to fruit quality characteristics by QTL analysis. Anchor loci present in both maps were used to join the linkage groups to create a single combined map of the peach genome. Physical mapping is currently underway to assign the each linkage group to the appropriate chromosome.
W.V. Baird, R.E. Ballard, S. Rajapakse, and A.G. Abbott
L.H. Zhang, D.H. Byrne, R.E. Ballard, and S. Rajapakse
Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Rosa wichurana Crépin to combine two previously constructed tetraploid rose (Rosa hybrida L.) genetic maps. To isolate SSR-containing sequences from rose a small-insert genomic library was constructed from diploid Rosa wichurana and screened with several SSR probes. Specific primers were designed for 43 unique SSR regions, of which 30 primer pairs gave rise to clear PCR products. Seventeen SSR primer pairs (57%) produced polymorphism in the tetraploid rose 90-69 mapping family. These markers were incorporated into existing maps of the parents 86-7 and 82-1134, which were constructed primarily with AFLP markers. The current map of the male parent, amphidiploid 86-7, consists of 286 markers assigned to 14 linkage groups and covering 770 cm. The map of the female tetraploid parent, 82-1134, consists of 256 markers assigned to 20 linkage groups and covering 920 cm. Nineteen rose SSR loci were mapped on the 86-7 map and 11 on the 82-1134 map. Several homeologous linkage groups within maps were identified based on SSR markers. In addition, some of the SSR markers provided anchoring points between the two parental maps. SSR markers were also useful for joining small linkage groups. Based on shared SSR markers, consensus orders for four rose linkage groups between parental maps were generated. Microsatellite markers developed in this study will provide valuable tools for many aspects of rose research including future consolidation of diploid and tetraploid rose genetic linkage maps, genetic, phylogenetic and population analyses, cultivar identification, and marker-assisted selection.
S. Rajapakse, L. E. Belthoff, R. E. Ballard, R. Scorza, W.V. Baird, R. Monet, and A. G. Abbott
We have constructed a genetic linkage map of peach consisting of RFLP, RAPD, and morphological markers, based on 78 F2 individuals derived from the self-fertilization of four F1 individuals originating from a cross between `New Jersey Pillar' and KV 77119. This progeny set was chosen because parental genotypes exhibit variation in canopy shape, fruit flesh color, and flower petal color, size, and number. The segregation of 81 markers comprised of RFLP, RAPD and morphological loci was analyzed. Low copy genomic and cDNA probes were used in the RFLP analysis. The current genetic map for the WV family contains 57 markers assigned to 9 linkage groups, which cover 520 cM of the peach nuclear genome. The average distance between two adjacent markers was 9 cM. Linkage was detected between Pillar (Pi) and double flowers (Dl). RFLP markers loosely linked to Pi, flesh color (Y), and white flower (W) loci were found. Twenty-four markers remain unassigned.