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Paul W. Foote, J. Scott Cameron, and Stephen F. Klauer

Leaf-area based CO2 assimilation rate (ALA as an Indicator of genotypic differences in photosynthetic capacity is questioned on the basis of correlations found between ALA and specific leaf weight and small leaf size. To address this question of photosynthetic apparatus concentration In F. chiloensis genotypes differing significantly in ALA, visual image analysis software was used to quantify a number of leaf anatomy parameters. In 1991 and 1992, after gas exchange measurements in the field, leaf tissue was prepared In cross-sections and leaf clearings for light microscopy. Cross-sections were used to measure internal anatomical parameters and clearings for vein and stomatal densities.

Analysis of variance of 1991\92 measurements showed significant genotypic variation for leaf veination, leaf thickness, palisade cell length, cross-sectional area In mesophyll tissue and internal air space. Differences in stomatal density were observed in 1991. None of the anatomical parameters measured were correlated with ALA. This suggests that the concentration of physical apparatus Is not the major source of variation In ALA among these eight genotypes.

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Stenhen F. Klauer, J. Scott Cameron, and Paul W. Foote

Results from previous cultural and physiological studies of red raspberry suggest that primocanes compete with floricanes for light, nutrients and/or photoassimilates. This study was undertaken to determine whether this competition might be reflected in the actual translocation of photoassimilates between the two types of canes. In 1993, pairs of greenhouse grown, potted red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants contaming one or two floricanes and numerous primocanes were labeled with 14CO2 on four dates corresponding with early anthesis, green fruit, red fruit and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For each experiment, either a floricane or a primocane was exposed to 92.5μCi 14CO2 within a sealed bag. After 24 hours, the bag was removed and the presence of label was monitored for up to 11 days. Activity was determined using liquid scintillation. At all developmental stages 14C moved from the labeled floricane to primocanes that were from 2.5 cm to 1.5 m tall and to the roots. Movement was quickest and relatively greatest at early anthesis, dccreascd during fruiting, and was still occuring at 2 months after fruit maturity. Small amounts of label were detected in roots of labeled primocanes at all stages, but trace amounts were present in fruit and other primocanes only at post fruit maturity.

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Stephen F. Klauer, Chuhe Chen, Paul W. Foote, and J. Scott Cameron

On four dates during the 1991 growing season, gas exchange rates were measured on the same middle leaflets every 3 h from 7am-10pm from deflowered (DF) and fruiting (F) red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cv. “Meeker”) canes. Concurrently, the adjacent side leaflets were sampled for anatomical starch determination. The dates corresponded to the late anthesis/early green fruit, early red fruit, late red fruit, and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For all dates, CO2 assimilation (A) was highest from 7-10am, lowest at 4pm, and increased at 7pm. Overall A peaked during fruit development. Leaves of F canes had greater A than leaves of DF canes during fruit development, but rates were similar after fruit maturity.

Starch accumulation in leaf cross-sections generally followed the diurnal pattern observed for A. Starch appeared heaviest from 7am-lpm and often showed an increase from 7-10pm. Leaves from DF canes generally had a greater accumulation of starch. Seasonally, leaf starch from F canes appeared greatest at late anthesis, decreased during fruit development and was very low post fruit maturity. Leaf starch in DF canes appeared greatest at the late anthesis and late red fruit stages.

DF leaves had greater dry weight accumulation than F leaves during the red fruit stages. A Western blot showed that Rubisco levels as a percentage of total soluble protein were higher during fruit development and decreased after fruit maturity.

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Paul W. Foote, J. Scott Cameron, Chuhe Chen, and Stephen F. Klauer

Gas exchange rates were measured in the field on middle leaflets of Fragaria chiloensis (L.) trifoliates which were then used for Rubisco quantity and activity assays. Side leaflets of the same leaf were utilized for fourth-derivative spectroscopy, chlorophyll extraction, and specific leaf weight data. Differences of CO2 assimilation (A) rates were highly significant between genotypes ranging from 16.2 to 27.6 μmol CO2·s·m. Chlorophyll a and b, and total chlorophyll per unit area were positively correlated to A (r = 0.48**, 0.45**, and 0.49**, respectively). Total chlorophyll per unit dry weight had a correlation coefficient with A of 0.6**.

Fourth-derivative analysis of in vivo leaf attenuance spectra showed a positive correlation between A and Ca693 peak amplitude and a negative correlation of A and Ca677 peak amplitude. Peak amplitude of Ca693 was also correlated with chlorophyll content.

Activity per unit Rubisco was not a significant factor influencing A, but Rubisco quantity on either a leaf area or a dry weight basis was positively linked to A (r = 0.40** and 0.44**, respectively).

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Chuhe Chen, J. Scott Cameron, Stephen F. Klauer, and Paul W. Foote

After anthesis, date of leaf emergence was recorded in fruited plants (F) and deflowered plants (DF) of `Totem' strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), which were grown in a randomized block design with four blocks in a greenhouse. Two different regression models were fitted to describe leaf emergence rate (LER) after anthesis for F and DF (R2 = 0.826 and 0.916, respectively). The LER of F decreased during the fruit development, and accelerated and exceeded DF after fruit maturity, then both dropped when the growth season was ending.

Physiological and photosynthetic characteristics were measured on leaves from F and DF at green fruit, red fruit, and after fruit maturity stages. Newly expanded leaves had significantly higher gas exchange rates, specific leaf weight, chlorophyll a and b contents but lower a/b ratio than the older leaves both during and after fruit development. They also had higher amplitudes of Ca 693 but lower peaks at Ca 684 and Cb 649 in their fourth-derivative chlorophyll spectra. Leaf chlorophyll a content and CO2 assimilation rate decreased after fruit maturity. Plants at red fruit stage had higher chlorophyll b content than at green fruit and after fruit maturity stages.

The LERs of the second and third leaves emerged after anthesis were most seriously affected by fruit development. They showed greater photosynthetic activity than other leaves in the canopy during fruit development and were thus important to fruit yield.