Roses in nursery and landscape settings are frequently damaged by black spot, whose causal agent is the fungus Diplocarpon rosae F.A. Wolf. Potassium silicate was assessed as a media-applied treatment for decreasing the severity and incidence of black spot infection. Roses were treated with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L-1 silicon as potassium silicate incorporated into irrigation water on either a weekly or daily schedule. Five weeks after treatments were initiated, plants were inoculated with D. rosae. Roses began to show visual symptoms of infection §4 days later. Roses that had 150 mg·L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had significantly more silicon present in their leaves than other treatments as measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. In addition, roses that had 100 and 150 mg·L-1 silicon applied on a daily schedule had fewer black spot lesions per leaf and fewer infected leaves than any of the other treatments by the end of the experiment 7 weeks later. Although roses treated with higher levels of silicon on a daily basis fared better than roses in the other treatments, all of the roses were heavily infected with D. rosae by the end of the study. The results reported here indicate that using potassium silicate in irrigation water may be a useful component of a disease management system.
Jeffrey H. Gillman, David C. Zlesak, and Jason A. Smith
Hunter C. Smith, Jason A. Ferrell, and Tyler J. Koschnick
The plant growth regulator flurprimidol (Cutless G) is registered for use on ornamental plants to reduce internode elongation and reduce trimming frequency. It has been hypothesized that timing of the trimming event can be related to the efficacy of the flurprimidol treatment. Granular flurprimidol was applied to well-established plants at a standard rate of 22.5 g/a.i. (15 lbs product)/1000 ft2 on 23 Apr. 2012 and 1 May 2013.Two common Florida landscaping species, Viburnum odoratissimum and V. suspensum, were selected to be trimmed at different times to investigate flurprimidol efficacy by measuring plant regrowth, biomass, and visual appearance. The five trimming treatments occurred at 7 days before (flurprimidol) application (DBA), 0 DBA, 7 days after application (DAA), 14 DAA, and 21 DAA. No significant differences were observed in trimming times for flurprimidol-treated V. odoratissimum or V. suspensum. V. odoratissimum shoot regrowth was significantly reduced in flurprimidol-treated plants compared with the untreated control (UTC). The insufficient growth regulation observed in both Viburnum species is likely the result of species tolerance. Two flurprimidol application methods, granular and drench, were evaluated against an UTC on two landscaping species, Elaeagnus pungens and Loropetalum chinense. This experiment was to determine if a granular or drench application would influence the performance of flurprimidol. Shoot growth of E. pungens was reduced 4.3% and 13.9% by the granular and drench applications, respectively, but was not significantly different from one another or the UTC. The granular application reduced biomass (25.1%) but was not significantly different from the drench (16.9%). L. chinense shoot regrowth was decreased 39.5% and 38.2% by the granular and drench treatments, respectively. Plant biomass was significantly reduced in both treatments compared with the UTC (17.0% by granular and 13.9% by drench), but the biomass and visual assessments between the application methods were not significantly different. Species sensitivity was found to have a substantial influence on the efficacy of a flurprimidol application.
Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby
Gooseberries and currants (Ribes L.) are the alternate hosts for the fungus Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer, the causal agent of white pine blister rust. In this study, 16 black currant (R. nigrum L.) cultivars, including three accessions of the putatively immune cultivar ‘Consort’ and three cultivars developed at the University of Minnesota Horticultural Research Center, were screened for resistance to C. ribicola using artificial inoculation procedures. Twelve of these cultivars were grown in the field and observed for natural infection. Cultivars ‘Ben Sarek’, ‘Ben Lomond’, and ‘C2-2-1’ were infected naturally in the field at the University of Minnesota Horticultural Research Center in 2000, 2001, and 2004. Cultivars ‘Ben Sarek’, one mislabeled ‘Consort’ accession, R. nigrum ‘WI-1’, and ‘Ben Lomond’ had significantly more uredinial sori than other cultivars when inoculated artificially. To determine if the infected and noninfected ‘Consort’ clones were genetically related, DNA microsatellite genotyping was carried out to fingerprint these clones. One of the six microsatellite loci resulted in a polymorphism that indicated the infected clone was genetically different from the noninfected clones. In addition, the inoculation procedures used in these studies are generally efficacious for predicting resistance in the field because none of the field-infected cultivars were resistant in the greenhouse. This study confirms the Cr gene for resistance to C. ribicola in Ribes has remained effective for over 50 years.