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Igenicious N. Hlerema, Bahlebi K. Eiasu, and Susan H. Koch

several challenges, including the unwitting contamination of soils and fruits with the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) ( DAFF, 2011 ; Hill and Fraser, 2011 ). A zinc sulfate fertilizer that was imported from China in 2004 resulted in a Cd concentration higher

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Morris Ingle, J.C. Morris, and M.C. D'Souza

Three types of soil were mixed with water containing DPA (2000 mg·liter-1) and benomyl (300 mg·liter-1) at 1% to 5% (w/w). `Rome' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were dipped in the mixtures over 8 days. The efficiency of DPA as a scald inhibitor was not consistently affected by soil type, soil concentration, or age of mixture. Chemical names used: methyl[1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate (benomyl); diphenldyamine (DPA).

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W.G. Harris, M. Chrysostome, T.A. Obreza, and V.D. Nair

- to excessively well-drained sandy soils and porous limestone bedrock amounts to high vulnerability to contamination for the underlying Floridian aquifer and associated springs, particularly for pesticides and nutrients (such as NO 3 -N) that are

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Salvatore S. Mangiafico, Julie Newman, Donald J. Merhaut, Jay Gan, Ben Faber, and Laosheng Wu

citrus or avocado groves in California. Leaching. Leaching of nitrate and pesticides can contribute to groundwater contamination. The use of suction lysimeters is considered reliable for the estimation of contaminant leaching in sandy soils, although data

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Carl J. Rosen and Deborah L. Allan

soil ( Dimitri and Greene, 2002 ). Now, organic produce generally commands a higher price than conventional produce ( Oberholtzer et al., 2005 ), prompting producers to grow crops organically. The increased consumer demand appears to be driven primarily

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Jennifer L. Parke, Neelam R. Redekar, Joyce L. Eberhart, and Fumiaki Funahashi

control points for contamination by plant pathogens commonly include plants brought in from other production facilities, potting media or ingredients, cull piles that are used for making potting media, recycled containers, the soil or gravel under the

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Daniel Oscar Pereira Soares, Karla Gabrielle Dutra Pinto, Laís Alves da Gama, Carla Coelho Ferreira, Prasanta C. Bhowmik, and Sônia Maria Figueiredo Albertino

immobile, where it is quickly degraded. Blackshaw and Harker (2016 ), when studying glyphosate and AMPA residues in the soil, concluded that even with the application of high doses of glyphosates for several years, the possibility of contamination or

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El-Sayed Mohamed El-Mahrouk, Eman Abdel-Hakim Eisa, Mahmoud Abdelnaby Hegazi, Mohamed El-Sayed Abdel-Gayed, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, and Yougasphree Naidoo

in diameter with 9 kg of air-dried soil per pot, sprinkled with solutions of the aforementioned concentrations of metals and incubated for 60 d before being planted outdoors under a waterproof tarpaulin. Soil without heavy metal contamination served

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Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin, Chandra K. Purohit, and Michael G. Brown

Intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers to obtain higher crop yields has increased surface and groundwater contamination by agrochemicals, and both economic and regulatory factors are driving growers to adopt more sustainable practices

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Carol J. Lovatt

nitrate contamination in the case of nitrogen (N), all of which have serious consequences on human health and the environment. With less water of good quality available to leach accumulating nutrient (fertilizer) salts from orchard soils, cost