The objectives of this study were to compare the growth of prairie forb seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi to noninoculated seedlings transplanted to a highway right-of-way and to evaluate the effect of different VAM fungal species or combinations on posttransplant seedling growth. Four species of prairie forbs: pale-purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida Nutt.), prairie blazingstar (Liatris pycnostachya Michx.), prairie phlox (Phlox pilosa L.), and gray-headed coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Venten.) Barnh.], were grown in greenhouse mix and inoculated with Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall, or Glomus interadicies Schenk and Smith, or with a native Indiana prairie soil inoculum, or with a mix of all three. They were transplanted to a highway site in June, 1994. Only gray-headed coneflower exhibited a positive growth response to VAM inoculation. Inoculation of gray-headed coneflower with G. margarita produced the largest growth response by the end of the experiment.
The objective of this study was to determine whether container size or incorporation of water-holding hydrogels in the container medium would affect growth of prairie perennials transplanted on a steep slope. Seedlings of pale-purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida Nutt.), rough blazingstar (Liatris aspera Michx.), gray-headed coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Venten.) Barnh.], and little bluestem grass [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash.], were grown in 3.7-cm (1.46-inch) diameter tubes that were either 13 cm (5.1 inches) or 18 cm (7.1 inches) long containing either standard greenhouse mix or the mix amended with hydrogels Terra-sorb AG or Liqua-Gel, or a nonhydrogel experimental compound, GLK-8924. The seedlings were transplanted to the slope in May 1994, and harvested in June 1995. After two growing seasons, plants of pale-purple cone-flower and gray-headed coneflower from the longer containers were larger (dry weight) than those from the shorter containers. The blazingstar and little bluestem were unafffected by container size. Terra-sorb AG and Liqua-Gel did not significantly affect height growth of the prairie perennials. GLK-8924-amended medium resulted in smaller or similar height plants.
Grassland management techniques and dates of seeding for field establishment of 5 species of forbs (wild flowers) were investigated from 1981-1983. Management treatments included burning, mowing, herbicide followed by mowing, and an untreated control. All 3 treatments had no significant affect on seedling establishment. Fall seeding gave best emergence for black samson (Echinacea angustifolia D.C.) and butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa L.). Spring seeding gave maximum emergence of prairie coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Venten.)Barhn.] and purple prairieclover [Petalostemum purpureum (Venten.)Rydb.]. Rough gayfeather (Liatris aspera Michx.) displayed low emergence in both spring and fall seeding dates. Stand counts and winter survival responses to seeding dates were similar to emergence response for each species.
Two studies in west-central Nebraska to determine the survival of wildflowers planted with buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] and blue grama grass [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.)] were conducted in 6 and 10 year studies. In total, 19 forbs and 1 grass were transplanted with `Texoka' buffalo grass in the first study, and 16 forbs were planted in a split-plot design into 3 buffalo grass selections, blue grama or a clean cultivated plot in the second study. Survival between transplants in both studies varied significantly. In the first study, survival was significantly higher for little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium Michx.) (85%), bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis L.) (100%), and stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L.) (100%) over the 6 years of the study. In the second study, there were significant differences between species for survival, with grayhead prairie coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh.] (85%) and pitcher sage (Salvia azurea Lam.) (80%) having the highest survival at the end of the 10-year study. There were significant differences in height and number of flower stalks within S. rigida, R. pinnata, and S. azurea between years and between main plots. This study demonstrates differences in survival and growth of wildflowers when planted in conjunction with buffalo grass and blue grama grass.
elongation was affected by treatments. Species differences in response to the changing irrigation treatment may reflect a difference in adaptations and acclimation. For example, coneflower is native to the prairies of the central and southeastern United
Public interest has increased in recent years in propagating prairie plant species native to the midwestern United States ( Hitchmough et al., 2005 ). However, most assemblages of prairie species in managed landscapes and restored prairies generally
(Nutt.) J.F. Macbr., Ratibida columnaris (Pursh) D. Don, Rudbeckia columnaris Pursh, Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt.] is most commonly known as prairie coneflower or Mexican hat, but is also referred to by a number of regional common names including
researcher practices such as growing vegetables, tilled fallow, and mowing, with novel strategies such as prairie biomass production and summer annual smother crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil quality, response of annual and perennial
coneflower– Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, maximilian sunflower– Helianthus maximiliani Schrad., wild bergamot– Monarda fistulosa L., and narrowleaf mountain mint– Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad.]; a second mix (mix IP) consisted of an imazapic
in this experiment: coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea ‘Prairie Splendor’; 162-tray; C. Raker & Sons, Inc., Litchfield, MI), mum ( Chrysanthemum ‘Garden Alcala Red’; 51-tray; C. Raker & Sons, Inc.), and holly ( Ilex crenata ‘Steeds’; 10 cm, 16-liners