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Dennis P. Stimart

The Allen Centennial Gardens are instructional gardens managed by the Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Twenty-two garden styles exist on the 2.5-acre (1.0-ha) campus site with a primary focus on herbaceous annual, biennial and perennial ornamental plants. The gardens are used for instruction mostly by the Department of Horticulture and secondly by departments of art, botany, entomology, landscape architecture, plant pathology, and soils. Class work sessions are limited due to the gardens' prominence on campus, high aesthetic standards, space restrictions, and large class sizes. Undergraduate students are the primary source of labor for plant propagation, installation and maintenance; management; and preparation of interpretive literature. Work experience at the gardens assists students with obtaining career advances in ornamental horticulture. Future challenges include initiating greater faculty use of the gardens for instruction and creating innovative ways to use the gardens to enhance instruction.

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Authors should consult the ASHS Publications Style Manual, the primary style guide for authors, editors, and reviewers of articles submitted for publication, before they submit manuscripts. The author instructions presented below are part of the manual and are intended to acquaint the author with ASHS publication policies and general manuscript preparation. All detailed information on manuscript structure and ASHS style guidelines are presented in the ASHS Publications Style Manual, not here.

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Igino Teolis, Ellen B. Peffley, and David B. Wester

interact through questions and guided prompts ( White et al., 1990 ). Computer-assisted instruction has been used to help students learn the morphologic relationships between plants and learn morphology to identify unknown species ( Shaw, 1993 ). Computer

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Michael A. Arnold, Mary H. Meyer, Tim Rhodus, and Susan S. Barton

translational research as well as to provide an outlet for peer review of manuscripts describing innovations in teaching and public outreach. However, a peer review system or a repository for horticultural teaching and outreach/extension instructional materials

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Barbara Fails

Experiential learning is an integral component of successful career preparation for the horticulture industry. The limited-enrollment practicum course through Sparty's Flowers has been taught for 7 years, and accounts largely for the overall success of the retail floriculture program. Structure is built into the course by assigning weekly individual learning objectives and assignments. Students, in turn, develop their own action plans, upon which evaluation is based. Interactive group meetings replace formal lectures for more effective instructional delivery. Knowledge retention is enhanced as lessons are experienced, not only heard and read. Technical hands-on experiences of design, display, advertising, recordkeeping, sales, and merchandising sharpen abilities. Professional skills, such as time management, interpersonal communication, leadership, and creative problem solving are also developed and fostered by all members of the class. Practicum instruction, as an example of effective collaborative learning, allows a creative and realistic approach to teaching horticulture.

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Stephen E. Poe

A fundamental concern of agricultural education is innovation within the teaching process. In dealing with high technology, increasing subject complexity, and rising costs, educators (including plant managers and training personnel) must look to alternative methods of training and teaching. Educational multimedia software can effectively present a new dimension to traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI) by adding sound, animation, high-resolution graphics, and live-action video. Multimedia software is not difficult to program; however, the ease of programming depends on the authoring language or languages that are used. A traditional language such as C++ can take extended periods of time to program, possibly hours per minute of program. A program developed specifically for multimedia development can facilitate the interactions between sound, videos, and animation more readily, and reduce the programming time required significantly. The use and development of multimedia software using Toolbook (Asymetrix Corp.) will be presented with copies of the developed software available.

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Amy N. Wright, James A. Robbins, and Mengmeng Gu

Zollman, 2000 ). In many cases, however, budget constraints, time limits, transportation logistics, and limited access to qualified nurseries may make scheduling field trips a challenge. Recently, a set of instructional DVDs were produced by horticulture

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J.J. Ferguson

The experience and resources of extension specialists can be utilized in resident instruction within a horticultural managers' seminar for advanced undergraduate students, drawing on application of horticultural principles in work situations and other complex issues facing agricultural managers. Guest speakers present an overview of their background, work responsibilities, management philosophy and management practices. Students interact with speakers in this informal seminar and complete written evaluations of speakers and topics for discussion in later classes. This horticultural managers' seminar exposes students to the medley of problems and opportunities facing agricultural managers, utilizes the resources of extension faculty in resident instruction and reinforces ties between commodity departments and their respective industries.

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Mark Zampardo, Gary Kling, and Christopher Lindsey

An integrated teaching system was developed to enhance retention of course material covered in a woody landscape plants identification course. A Toolbook-based software program which incorporates high quality digital images and text in an interactive computer environment was tested on groups of randomly selected plant materials students. The objectives of the project were to: increase use of visual study techniques, facilitate individualized instruction, increase student access to information that is often not available in the classroom or from standard references, and enhance retention of course material. In alternating 4-week periods of time, one half of the students in the class had password access to the software. All students continued to receive traditional lecture and laboratory presentations of the material. This study was conducted with a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. Students' written test scores, performance on identification exams and student opinions were compared between the two groups.

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Kenneth W. Mudge, Kelly Hennigan, and Peter Podaras

An instructional system involving tropical hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) was developed for teaching hands-on grafting skills as part of a traditional comprehensive course in plant propagation and also as part of an online grafting course. The advantages of using tropical hibiscus include the following: the absence of phenological constraints associated with seasonal changes in temperate woody species; the comparative ease of grafting hibiscus, assuring positive reinforcement of the student's learning experience; and the ease of propagating and growing hibiscus in the greenhouse for use at any time of year. The three methods included in these laboratory exercises are top wedge grafting—selected for its ease and high rate of success—T-budding, and chip budding. In addition to development of hands-on skills, the exercises are designed to teach students three of the most important requirements for successful grafting of any species, regardless of method. These requirements include cambial alignment, application of pressure between stock and scion, and avoidance of desiccation. An online rating tutorial and lab report form was developed for students to self-evaluate their grafted plants.