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Ryan W. Dickson and Paul R. Fisher

effect in both substrate and hydroponic conditions during the vegetative growth stage. Species pH effect was quantified as mEq of root zone acidity–basicity per gram dry weight gain per plant in substrate and hydroponics. For plants grown in substrate

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Jong-Seok Park and Kenji Kurata

effect of microbubbles on the growth of leaf lettuce in a deep flow technique (DFT) hydroponics culture system. To understand the effects of microbubbles on plant growth, we compared lettuce treated with macrobubbles generated by aquarium aeration stones

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Merle H. Jensen

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Matthew A. Cutulle, H. Tyler Campbell, Monica Farfan, and Phillip A. Wadl

for screening stress tolerance in different plants, demanding lower resources, materials, and time than field trials ( Sakhanokho and Kelley, 2009 ). Hydroponics has been used to access herbicide tolerance or resistance in weeds ( Brosnan et al., 2014

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta, Andrei Kirilenko, and Celina Gómez

trending topic among online communities, which are significant drivers for this growing market segment ( Garden Media Group, 2019 ; Thij et al., 2016 ). As of Nov. 2019, indoor gardening subreddits such as r/UrbanFarming, r/Hydroponics, and r

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Martin P.N. Gent

according to RGR? To what extent are these determined by irradiance or time of year and by conditions of the nutrient solution in hydroponics? Irradiance is the primary factor affecting RGR ( Gent, 2014 ). However, a function of light intercepted by the crop

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Joshua K. Craver and Kimberly A. Williams

greenhouse industry is shifting away from solely producing herbaceous ornamental crops and integrating or replacing these crops with vegetables and herbs. For this reason, hydroponics and other systems using recirculated nutrient solution have become an

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Joshua D. Butcher, Charles P. Laubscher, and Johannes C. Coetzee

anaerobic respiration. Oxygenation in Hydroponics Plant growth has been shown to increase when irrigated with additional dissolved oxygen (DO) in the solution ( Soffer et al., 1990 ), therefore, in hydroponics it is important that oxygen is dissolved in the

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Vincent Martineau, Mark Lefsrud, Most Tahera Naznin, and Dean A. Kopsell

level for being considered as a replacement to HPS lamps in hydroponics growth environments. LED lamps are anticipated to replace HPS lamps in most applications as a result of their reduced electricity consumption, improved quality of light, and the

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Kathleen M. Ready and Allen V. Barker

Many people want to use hydroponics in production of plants but often are hobbyists with limited access to the reagents necessary to formulate a nutrient solution. Several readily available commercial fertilizers and chemicals with tomato-(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as the test plant were used to develop a nutrient solution. A 20-8.8-16.6 IN-P-K) general purpose fertilizer was added (1 g/liter) to deionized water to make a basic solution. This solution was fortified with slow-release fertilizer (approx. 17N-2.6P-8.5K with Ca, Hg, and minor elements) at 1 g/liter added directly to hydroponics vessels. Tomato developed severe foliar symptoms of Ca deficiency in this medium. Addition of CaSO4 or CaCO3 at 0.5 or 1 g/liter to give a solid phase of these chemicals in the vessels prevented development of symptoms of Ca deficiency; however, plants now showed symptoms of Mg deficiency. Addition of MgS0 at 0.25 g/liter to the basic solution prevented symptoms o Mg deficiency. Analyses confirmed that leaf N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were sufficient.

This solution was as good as Hoagland's No. 1 solution for growth of tomato, marigold, and cucumber and was better than Hoagland's solution for growth of corn and wheat.