Elepidote rhododendrons are important landscape plants because of showy flowers and bold evergreen foliage. The most common flower colors are lavender, pink, and white, but red flowercolor is highly sought after. Only some elepidote rhododendrons
cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors.
Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flowercolor variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and
carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flowercolor pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar
individual plants and planted in a new plot. After several years of propagation, field performance was observed from 2015 to 2017. The flowercolor and shape were stable and consistent. A new cultivar name was assigned as Zi Meiren and authorized by the
winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flowercolor and form and
In plants, especially ornamentals, flowercolor is a very important ornamental trait ( Han et al., 2022 ). Among the many flower colors, most of them are monochromatic color in the plant world, but a few are double-color. The definition of double-color
Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flowercolor in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink
, mood, social behavior, and even immediate and long-term memory.
Flowercolor is a primary product attribute for combination planters ( Mason et al., 2008 ), edible flowers ( Kelley et al., 2001 , 2002 ), geraniums ( Behe et al., 1999 ), and
several years. However, preserved flowers do not retain their natural color. Flowers are artificially stained by soaking in polyethylene glycol with synthetic dyes. It is difficult to stain sepals, stems, and leaves separately from petals, thus multicolor
Cleome hasslerana Chod., a cross-pollinated species, has 5 corolla colors: violet, lilac, red, pink, and white. F1 and F2 progenies produced from crosses among the cultivars Helen Campbell Snow Crown, Cherry Queen, Pink Queen, and Violet Queen indicate that 3 loci with 2 alleles per locus control flower color. The allele W, for colored corolla, is dominant to w, for white corolla; R, for violet color, is dominant to r for red; and I, for dilute flower color, is dominant to i, determining intense flower color.