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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

Elepidote rhododendrons are important landscape plants because of showy flowers and bold evergreen foliage. The most common flower colors are lavender, pink, and white, but red flower color is highly sought after. Only some elepidote rhododendrons

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Andrea Quintana, Rosanna Freyre, Thomas M. Davis, and Robert J. Griesbach

cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors. Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flower color variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flower color pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar

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Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang

individual plants and planted in a new plot. After several years of propagation, field performance was observed from 2015 to 2017. The flower color and shape were stable and consistent. A new cultivar name was assigned as Zi Meiren and authorized by the

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flower color and form and

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Xinpeng Zhang, Zongda Xu, Wenli Wang, Deyu Mu, Xiang Meng, Min Lu, and Cheng Li

In plants, especially ornamentals, flower color is a very important ornamental trait ( Han et al., 2022 ). Among the many flower colors, most of them are monochromatic color in the plant world, but a few are double-color. The definition of double-color

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flower color in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink

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Chengyan Yue and Bridget K. Behe

, mood, social behavior, and even immediate and long-term memory. Flower color is a primary product attribute for combination planters ( Mason et al., 2008 ), edible flowers ( Kelley et al., 2001 , 2002 ), geraniums ( Behe et al., 1999 ), and

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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

several years. However, preserved flowers do not retain their natural color. Flowers are artificially stained by soaking in polyethylene glycol with synthetic dyes. It is difficult to stain sepals, stems, and leaves separately from petals, thus multicolor

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Donn L. Ladd, Mary Lewnes Albrecht, and Carl D. Clayberg


Cleome hasslerana Chod., a cross-pollinated species, has 5 corolla colors: violet, lilac, red, pink, and white. F1 and F2 progenies produced from crosses among the cultivars Helen Campbell Snow Crown, Cherry Queen, Pink Queen, and Violet Queen indicate that 3 loci with 2 alleles per locus control flower color. The allele W, for colored corolla, is dominant to w, for white corolla; R, for violet color, is dominant to r for red; and I, for dilute flower color, is dominant to i, determining intense flower color.