lighting technology, alternative heating sources, and greenhouse media have all led to improved efficiencies and decreased impacts on the environment ( Nelson, 2012 ). However, more recently, the heavy use of plastic as pots in greenhouse production has
Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Andrew K. Koeser, Michael Evans, Rebecca Schnelle, Victoria Anderson, and J. Ryan Stewart
Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, Rafael Auras, Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, Genhua Niu, Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Susmitha Nambuthiri, and Robert L. Geneve
Table 2 . Table 2. Container type, abbreviation, product name, constructed material, volume (gal), and manufacturer of containers used in 2011, 2012, and 2013 alternative container studies. Irrigation application and daily water use Overhead irrigation
Robin G. Brumfield, Laura B. Kenny, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Andrew K. Koeser, Sven Verlinden, A.J. Both, Guihong Bi, Sarah T. Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart
system by using petunia as a model crop. Alternative containers have reduced environmental impacts compared with their traditional plastic counterparts ( Schrader et al., 2016 ). Plastic containers lead to disposal issues, and recycling facilities are
Tori Lee Jackson, Mark G. Hutton, and David T. Handley
environmental, human health, and resistance risks, as well as regulatory pressures associated with conventional pesticide use, many consumers and growers are now seeking alternatives to conventional pesticide use. Some researchers have revisited techniques used
Sabrina J. Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Russ Zeeck
( Juckers and Watmough, 2014 ), and plant community shifts due to fluctuations in climate ( Schwarzer et al., 2013 ). Alternatives to peat use are being explored to address concerns regarding reduced long-term sustainability associated with peat harvesting
Douglas C. Sanders, Luz M. Reyes, David W. Monks, Katie M. Jennings, Frank J. Louws, and Jim G. Driver
Compost sources were used to determine long-term influence on common vegetable cropping systems (tomato, pepper, and cucumber). Three sources of Controlled Microbial Compost (CMC) (20 yd3/A) amended with fumigant Telone-C35 (35 gal/A) and Trichoderma-382 [2.5 oz/yd.3 (T-382)] were used during 3 consecutive years. Tomato showed statistic differences (1%) among compost treatments with higher total yields when CMC was combined with Telone-C35 (21%) and T-382 (8.2%). All treatments but Bio-Compost and control presented al least 25% more marketable yield per acre. No differences in fruit size were found for tomato, except for medium-size fruit when Telone C-35 was added. The CMC alone or combined with Telone C-35 and T-382 increased the total plant dry weight at least 18.6%. Pepper crop showed statistic differences with higher number of No. 1 fruit size when CMC was combined with Telone C-35 and T-382. Number of culls per acre decreased for all three compost sources, with no differences from the control. Cucumber yields differed among treatments for total and marketable yields and No.1 size fruit per acre. Best yields were achieved with CMC and when mixed with Telone C-35 and T-382. The lower numbers of culls per acre were found with Bio-Compost and Lexington sources and CMC+T-382. Total plant dry weight was increased in at least 24% when Bio-Compost or CMC compost were used alone or combined with Telone-C35 or T-382. CMC increased root knot nematode soil counts and percentage of root galling, but tended to improve root vigor in cucumbers. It seems that compost sources combined with Telone C-35 or T-382 could improve the cropping management as alternative to methyl bromide. Weed responses will also be discussed.
Genhua Niu, Raul I. Cabrera, Terri W. Starman, and Charles R. Hall
with water source and treatment processes, ranges from 1.0 to 1.9 dS·m −1 ( Schuch, 2005 ; Wu et al., 2001 ). To successfully use these alternative water sources, information on salt tolerance of economically important ornamental plants and their
Martin R. McGann and Robert D. Berghage
The Pennsylvania State University Medieval Garden (PSMG) showcases varieties of medieval plants used as ornamentals, food crops, medicinal ingredients, and for household purposes in a stylized setting representing a medieval garden. Since its installation, various colleges within the university as well as community groups have used the garden as an alternative classroom for learning activities, educational demonstrations, and events related to the medieval period. This article focuses on the initial development of the garden design and how the installation and continued use as a classroom has contributed to meeting educational goals for students in the landscape contracting program at the Pennsylvania State University and the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences.
W.B. Evans, V. Cerven, N. Winter, and C.E. Coker
, they concluded that the compact determinate cherry tomato architecture offered a compelling alternative to traditional staked cherry tomato cultivars, especially for smaller commercial producers. It is unclear why the idea of using compact determinate
Monica Ozores-Hampton and Brain Mardones
Intensive peat mining in Chile and worldwide produces a significant increase in production costs and less market availability. Alternative systems to promote peat mining sustainability are an immediate necessity. A viable alternative for replacing peat in tomato transplant production is to use worm castings or vermicompost. Vermicomposting is a biological process that relies on the action of earthworms (Eisenia sp.) to stabilize waste organic materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Ecobol-S® worm castings as a replacement for peat in tomato transplant production. Three experiments were designed using a randomized complete-block design containing two factors (planting date and worm casting rate). Tomatoes were seeded in a growth chamber using five growth media made up of the different ratios of worm castings, peat, and rice hulls [0:70:30 (control) 18:52:30; 35:35:30; 52:18:30; and 70:0:30], respectively. It was determined that Ecobol-S® worm castings have an adequate C:N and particle size for tomato transplant production. However, limitations were observed due to its high EC and low C content. During early fall, with high temperature in the growth chamber, it is not recommended to use worm castings in transplant production due to nutrient leaching caused by frequent irrigation. In mid-fall, it is recommended to use a rate of 35% worm castings, while in early winter it is recommended to use a rate of 52% to obtain strong and healthy transplants. Therefore, worm castings can be used as a viable alternative in the tomato transplant industry in Chile and possibly worldwide.