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Ross Braun, Jack Fry, Megan Kennelly, Dale Bremer, and Jason Griffin

Coatings, Norcross, GA) applied once in autumn in a dilution of 1:10 (colorant:water) at rate of 80 gal/acre enhanced winter color of ‘Diamond’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia matrella ) and ‘Miniverde’ hybrid bermudagrass putting greens ( Briscoe et al., 2010

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Ross C. Braun, Jack D. Fry, Megan M. Kennelly, Dale J. Bremer, and Jason J. Griffin

In the transitional climates, warm-season turfgrasses are more heat and drought resistant and require fewer pesticide and fertilizer inputs than cool-season turfgrasses, but an extended winter dormancy period in warm-season turfgrasses makes them less attractive. Our objective was to evaluate color intensity and persistence of colorants applied at two volumes, once or sequentially, on buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) maintained at 2.5 inches and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) maintained at 0.5 inch. Field studies were conducted in Manhattan, KS, and Haysville, KS, from Oct. 2013 to May 2014 on dormant ‘Sharpshooter’ and ‘Cody’ buffalograss and ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass. The colorants Green Lawnger, Endurant, and Wintergreen Plus were applied at 100 or 160 gal/acre in autumn (single application) or autumn plus midwinter (sequential application). Every 2 weeks, visual turf color was rated on a 1 to 9 scale (9 = best) with ratings based on the intensity of the color, not the color (hue) of green. Few differences in color persistence occurred among colorants, but color persisted longer at the higher spray volume. In general, buffalograss receiving a single autumn colorant application had acceptable color (i.e., a visual rating ≥6) for 55–70 days at 100 gal/acre or 55–88 days at 160 gal/acre. Zoysiagrass receiving a single autumn colorant application had acceptable color for 56–97 days at 100 gal/acre or 97–101 days at 160 gal/acre. Across all sites, a sequential midwinter application applied at 160 gal/acre on buffalograss and both application volumes on zoysiagrass provided acceptable green turf color from that point until spring green-up. Most buffalograss plots receiving the sequential midwinter application at 100 gal/acre had acceptable color from that point until spring green-up. Winter color of buffalograss and zoysiagrass can be enhanced by colorant application, and a longer period of acceptable color can be achieved by applying at a higher volume or by including a sequential midwinter treatment.

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Antonio Pompeiano, Nicola Grossi, and Marco Volterrani

below 15 °C, followed by termination of shoot growth when below ≈10 °C ( Wei et al., 2008 )—significant differences among species and cultivars are known. Cultural practices have been used to extend the winter color retention of zoysiagrass in late fall

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Alice Le Duc and John C. Pair

Five cultivars of boxwood (Buxus microphylla)—'Winter Gem', B. microphylla var. japonica `Green Beauty', `Green Velvet', `Green Mountain' and `Glencoe'—were planted in twelve different exposures at Manhattan and Wichita, Kan., representing USDA hardiness zones 5 and 6 respectively. The 1995–96 winter was one of great extremes. Lows of –25°C for Manhattan and -23°C for Wichita were recorded, along with sharp 24-hour temperature drops of 31–32°C in January and March. Differences in cultivar performance were noted between the sites. At the Wichita site best winter color was exhibited by `Green Velvet' and `Glencoe', whereas `Green Mountain' sustained some bronzing of foliage due to winter sun. At Manhattan only `Glencoe' in protected locations exhibited good winter color. All other surviving cultivars showed considerable bronzing. In addition, `Green Beauty' was severely damaged at Manhattan, sustaining bark splitting due to low temperatures, although most plants survived at Wichita. Shaded locations on north, northeast and northwest produced best plant quality of all cultivars; whereas, the poorest plant performance occurred on south and southeast exposures.

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Sherry Kitto and Traci McMillian

Pachysandra procumbens, the Allegheny pachysandra, is very rare to rare throughout most of its native range. Winter color, growth habit and ease of maintenance all recommend this perennial as an alternative ground cover for shady habitats. Development of micropropagation protocols may allow for its mass distribution. Non-wild collected shoots were disinfested using conventional procedures and were cultured and maintained in an MS based stock medium. Shoots proliferated equally well on an MS, a modified MS or a DKW based medium. Shoots had significantly more swelled buds when cultured in medium gelled with Gelrite or in liquid medium on membrane rafts compared to vermiculite. Microcuttings with or without a basal node rooted equally well. Microcuttings with or without an apical bud rooted equally well; however, microcuttings with an apical bud produced significantly longer roots.

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David R. Sandrock, Jean Williams-Woodward, and Michael A. Dirr

Fifty-four taxa of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were assembled and maintained. A protocol for propagation of Atlantic white cedar was established. Plants were grown in containers and in a replicated field plot. Height and width data were recorded from container- and field-grown plants and all taxa were evaluated for growth habit, growth rate, and summer and winter color. Color descriptions of foliage are provided based on the Royal Horticultural Society colour chart. Exceptional taxa were identified based on needle color, texture, growth habit, and growth rate. Superior green forms include Dirr Seedlings 1 and 2, `Emily', `Rachel', and `Okefenokee'. The superior variegated form is `Webb Gold'. Superior blue forms include `Blue Sport', `Glauca Pendula', and `Twombly Blue', and superior slow-growing forms include `Andelyensis', `Meth Dwarf', `Red Star', and `Heatherbun'. These taxa are recommended to growers, landscapers, and gardeners for production and use.

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Ryan N. Contreras, Ron Determann, and Mara Friddle

green. Our hypothesis was that a difference in ploidy level among cultivars is related to the variation in winter color and that cultivars that remain greener during winter were tetraploids. The current study was conducted to determine the ploidy level

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most cited reasons for BMP use was environmental protection and resource savings. Colorants Enhance Winter Color of Warm-season Turfgrasses Buffalograss and zoysiagrass are warm-season turfgrass species that requires less water and fewer cultural inputs

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Danqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Jiaping Zhang, Kang Li, and Yiping Xia

have a better understanding of the relationship between these two traits. This study quantified the winter color retention (discoloration) and spring recovery response of 12 iris species/cultivars in a field environment in the Yangtze Delta, China

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B.G. Wherley, P. Skulkaew, A. Chandra, A.D. Genovesi, and M.C. Engelke

= minimally acceptable color. Using the same rating scale, winter color, spring green-up, and genetic color were also evaluated according to National Turfgrass Evaluation Program guidelines ( Morris and Shearman, 1998 ). Spring green-up was evaluated in mid