The purpose of this paper was to report the effects of window views and indoor plants on human psychophysiological response in workplace environments. The effects of window views and indoor plants were recorded by measuring participant's electromyography (EMG), electroencephalography (EEG), blood volume pulse (BVP), and stateanxiety. Photo Impact 5.0 was used to simulate the environment in an office, where six conditions were examined: 1) window with a view of a city, 2) window with a view of a city and indoor plants, 3) window with a view of nature, 4) window with a view of nature and indoor plants, 5) office without a window view, and 6) office without a window view and indoor plants. Participants were less nervous or anxious when watching a view of nature and/or when indoor plants were present. When neither the window view nor the indoor plants were shown, participants suffered the highest degree of tension and anxiety.
Chen-Yen Chang and Ping-Kun Chen
Roland E. Roberts, David A. Bender, Jackie Smith, and Stanley Young
A market window for onion occurs when f.o.b. prices are above grower break-even price for a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Market windows were calculated to occur from late June to early August and from early October through December for northwest Texas onions. Five-year average prices ranged from $6.25 to $7.40 (1990–94), and a breakeven price of $5.38/50-lb sack was calculated from an analysis of total costs of production and marketing and historic yields. Ongoing research and grower demonstrations with advanced breeding lines, commercial cultivars, and selections from yellow, white, and red cultivars have defined certain cultivars that display superior attributes and mature within the market window. Superior cultivars adapted to the first market window include XPH-87N60, `Sunre 1445', `Sunre 1462', `Yula', `Spano', `Cimarron', `Riviera', `Utopia', and `Alabaster'. Superior cultivars adapted to the second market window include `Sweet Perfection', `Sterling', `Vega', `Bravo', `Capri', `Vaquero', `El Charro', `Quest', `Shasta', and `Vision'. `Vaquero', `Sunre 1462', `Sunre 1445', `El Charro', and `Viceroy' have potential for short-term storage for October to December markets.
Andrea Dravigne, Tina Marie Waliczek, R.D. Lineberger, and J.M. Zajicek
the room helped reduced mental fatigue, increased attentiveness, lowered blood pressure, and increased productivity of participants. Additional studies have shown that the presence of live plants, windows, and views of natural surroundings can have a
Andrea K. Dravigne, Tina M. Waliczek, Jayne M. Zajicek, and R. Daniel Lineberger
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the presence of live interior plants or window views of exterior green spaces on employee job satisfaction. A survey was administered through an online database. The survey included questions regarding physical work environment, the presence or absence of live interior plants, windows, exterior green spaces, environmental preferences, job satisfaction, and demographical information. About 600 office workers from Texas and the Midwest responded to the on-line workplace environment survey. Data were analyzed to compare levels of job satisfaction of employees that worked in office spaces that included live interior plants or window views of exterior green spaces and employees that worked in office environments without live plants or window views. Demographic information collected allowed controlling for salary, occupational level, educational level, age group, gender, and ethnicity. This research data can be particularly useful in urban planning, commercial property design and to encourage the incorporation of plants and green spaces in interior and exterior development projects.
John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Peter A. Harrison, R. Andrew Schofield, and Jennifer R. DeEll
A final harvest window (FHW), expressed as Streif Index coefficients [firmness/(percentage soluble solids concentration × starch index)], was developed for identifying maximum fruit quality for strains of `McIntosh', `Cortland', and `Jonagold' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) following 8 months of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. The Streif Index was calculated during nine preharvest (twice per week) intervals and four weekly harvests over three seasons. The relationship between Streif Index (dependent variable) and day of year (independent variable) of the preharvest and harvest samples was then derived by negative first-order linear regression equations that had parameter estimate (b1) probability values ≤0.0001 for all of the strains. Apples from the four harvest periods were stored in standard CA storage for 8 months and then subjected to a 7-day shelf-life test at 0 °C followed by 5 days at 20 °C. Poststorage quality data were categorized and combined to produce an overall fruit quality rating scale. For each strain, the final harvest (i.e., day of year) was identified as that which directly preceded at least a 10% drop in the poststorage fruit quality rating compared with the first harvest rating. The FHW, expressed as Streif Index coefficients via the regression of Streif Index (Y) on day of year (X), was then calculated as the 3-year final harvest mean with the upper and lower window limits being determined by the standard deviation of the mean. The lower to upper FHW boundaries ranged from 4.18 to 5.34, 4.12 to 5.46, 4.51 to 5.68, 5.23 to 5.99, and 1.38 to 2.34 for Redmax, Marshall and Summerland `McIntosh', Redcort `Cortland' and Wilmuta `Jonagold', respectively. The practical utility of the Streif Index method lies in the ease with which apple fruit maturity at harvest can be evaluated for its suitability for long-term CA storage.
William L. Bauerle, Dennis J. Timlin, Yakov A. Pachepsky, and Shruthi Anantharamu
Application of process-based models beyond the research community has been limited, in part because they do not operate in a user-friendly Windows environment. We describe the procedure of adapting a spatially explicit biological-process model, MAESTRA, to run in a standard graphical user interface (GUI). The methods used to adapt the MAESTRA model are generally applicable to other process-based models and therefore simplify other coupling attempts. We discuss recommendations based on our experiences for model input structure and interface design, two components that will allow various models to work with a generic interface. MAESTRA uses modified versions of the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance (gs) and Farquhar photosynthesis(Anet) models to estimate transpiration and photosynthesis on a leaf area basis and scale the sunlit and shaded fractions to the whole tree. We present MAESTRA estimates within a standardized graphical user interface for crop simulators (GUICS) windows environment and furthermore, we provide dialog boxes and graphical displays of the MAESTRA model input and whole tree output for red maple trees. In so doing, we present a technology transfer via the GUICS that prevents any watering down of the science behind the MAESTRA model, yet allows an accurate decision support tool to reach a wide audience.
James E. Simon, W. Dennis Scott, and Gerald Wilcox
A study was initiated at the Southwest Purdue Ag Center to demonstrate the effect of transplant age and transplanting date on the scheduling of melon harvests. Muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Superstar) was seeded into #38 growing trays with Jiffy-mix media. Seeding dates were such that 14 and 21 day old seedlings were transplanted April 25, May 9, 17 and 24. The plants were grown on black plastic with trickle irrigation Marketable fruit were harvested starting on June 28 and continuing through August 12. Neither transplant age or date had a significant effect on the number of fruit harvested or on total yield. However, each transplant date showed a distinctive harvest peak beginning June 30 for the April 26 transplant then June 7, 14 and 21 for each successive transplant date.
Roger Harris, Nina L. Bassuk, and Thomas H. Whitlow
Root and shoot phenology were observed, and root length within rootballs were calculated for Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (green ash), Quecus coccinea Muenchh. (scarlet oak), Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazelnut), and Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara `Ivory Silk' (tree lilac) trees established in a rhizotron. Easy-to-transplant species (green ash and tree lilac) had more root length within rootballs than difficult-to-transplant species (Turkish hazelnut and scarlet oak). Shoot growth began before root growth on all species except scarlet oak, which began root and shoot growth simultaneously. Fall root growth ceased for all species just after leaf drop. Implications for tree transplanting are discussed.
Shufu Dong, Denise Neilsen, Gerry H. Neilsen, and Michael Weis
A simple flatbed-scanner-based image acquisition system was developed for the measurement of `Gala'/M9 (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) apple tree root growth in rhizoboxes with a transparent acrylic sheet on one side. A tree was planted in the center of each rhizobox, and a modified flatbed scanner was periodically used to directly capture high-resolution digital images of roots growing against the transparent wall. Total root length in the images was either measured manually, or by computer mouse tracing, or automatically with a computer image analysis system. Correlations were made among the different measurements. High quality root images were obtained with the adapted scanner system. Significant linear relationships were found between manual and computer traced root length measurements (r = 0.99), traced and automatic measurements (r = 0.76) and manual and automatic measurements (r = 0.75). Apple roots appeared on the transparent wall 34 days after transplanting, and grew rapidly thereafter, reaching a maximum on the transparent wall 59 days after transplanting. Our results showed that the use of a flatbed scanner for the acquisition of root images combined with computer analysis is a promising technique to speed data acquisition in root growth investigations.
Amy L. McFarland
, 1990 ; White and Heerwagen, 1998 ). Even incarcerated criminals with window views of natural areas have reported less incidence of illness when compared with those without window views of natural areas ( Moore, 1981 ). Furthermore, numerous researchers