and 2014 ( Allen et al., 2017 ). Seedling diseases can lead to poor crop establishment in soybean and can be managed with fungicide seed treatments ( Bradley, 2008 ; Dorrance and McClure, 2001 ; Dorrance et al., 2003 ). Fungicides with broad
Biological seed treatment offers a safe, environmentally responsible option for protection of seeds and seedlings from attack by soilborne pathogens. Most effective biological seed treatments have used either bacterial or fungal agents. The efficacy of a biological seed treatment depends upon the ability of the biocontrol agent to compete and function on the seed and in the rhizosphere under diverse conditions of soil pH, nutrient level, moisture, temperature, and disease pressure. Seed treatment performance may be improved through application and formulation technology. An example of this is the bio-priming seed treatment, a combination of seed priming and inoculation with Pseudomonas aureofaciens AB254, which was originally developed for protection of sh-2 sweet corn from Pythium ultimum seed decay. Bio-priming has been evaluated for protection of seed of sweet corn and other crops under a range of soil environmental conditions.
Disease management is an important step in any crop establishment system. Emergence of field-seeded crops may take several weeks for many species and represents a vulnerable stage of plant growth. This paper considers various biological, chemical, and physical seed treatments for improved seed performance. The role of seed quality and cultural practices in seedling establishment also is reviewed. Multidisciplinary approaches to improving horticultural crop establishment are promising.
turfgrass species ( Fry, 1991 ). Jiang and Fry (1998) indicated that foliar application of ETH could increase the turf quality of perennial ryegrass under drought. The efficacy of using ETH as a seed treatment to promote drought resistances of turfgrass
different management practices is the best way to manage ascochyta blight of chickpea ( Gan et al., 2006 ). Integrated management programs include crop rotation, seed certification and testing, fungicide seed treatment, partially resistant cultivars, and
, azinphos-methyl, and phosmet, until the early 1990s. Additionally, the increase in carrot weevil damage may also be attributed to limited acreage for crop rotation, an important pest management tactic for carrot weevil ( Grafius, 1984 ). Seed treatment
challenge for the establishment of Brassica crops in direct-seeded production. The use of protective compounds as seed treatment could improve crop tolerance to injury from PRE herbicides, making it feasible to direct-seed Brassica crops for production
In the laboratory, gibberellic acid (GA3) applied to Tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) seed at 1000 ppm for 48 hr and priming in 2.75% KNO3 for 144 hr significantly stimulated seed germination performance (a function of germination rate and percent germination). In the field, GA3-treated and primed seed treatments were direct-seeded or plug-mix planted and were evaluated for germination, emergence, and yield. In addition, a pregerminated plug-mix seed treatment and a transplanting treatment also were evaluated. Seed priming and GA3 treatment significantly decreased field emergence of both direct-seeded and plug-mix planted treatments. Seedling emergence percentages of untreated seed that was direct-seeded, and pregerminated seed that was planted in plug-mix were significantly higher than other treatments. Greatest stand percentage was observed in the pregerminated seed treatment. Mean rates of emergence increased in primed and pregerminated seed treatments. Total fruit yields of Tabasco were increased by transplanting or pregerminated seed treatments; red fruit yields were greater in pregerminated seed treatments.
A broadcast MnSO4 treatment of 38 Kg Mn/ha resulted in 2½-fold increase in both plant growth and shelled pea yields of ‘Darkskin Perfection’ peas. Pods per plant and peas per pod, 2 components of the yield equation, were reduced by Mn deficiency. Seed treatments of Mn EDTA were not effective in correcting the deficiency.
Fungicides applied as soil drenches affect arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization of plant roots to different degrees, depending on the chemical used. However, the effect of fungicides applied as seed treatments has been less studied, and is of particular interest to growers who want to encourage beneficial mutualisms while protecting seedlings against pathogens. We tested the effects of four common seed treatments, Apron (mefenoxam), Thiram, Raxil (tebuconzaole), and Captan on colonization of `Superstar' muskmelon roots by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in the greenhouse. By 30 days after planting, colonization was very high (>90% root length) for all treatments, with relatively minor (<10%) differences in percent length root with AM hyphae. The Apron seed treatment had the highest percent root length with hyphae, but the lowest amount of vesicles, while roots from Raxil and Captan-treated seeds had the lowest hyphal colonization and highest vesicle formation. Myconate ®, a commercial formulation of formononetin, an isoflavone previously shown to increase AM colonization, significantly increased the percent colonization of roots from the Raxil treatment, but not other treatments. Myconate also increased vesicle numbers in all but the Captan treatments, but not significantly.