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Cody J. Stewart, S. Christopher Marble, Brian Jackson, Brian J. Pearson, P. Christopher Wilson, and Dwight K. Lauer

In the eastern United States, pine bark is the predominate substrate component in outdoor nursery container plant production. Pine bark is a byproduct of the timber industry and is stripped off logs following harvest. Once the removed pine bark is

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

Pine bark is the primary component in container nursery substrates, comprising 60% to 80% by volume of most substrate blends. Pine bark is a commodity used by other industries including fuel generation, fiber ( Lu et al., 2006 ), charcoal, landscape

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R. Crofton Sloan, Richard L. Harkess, and William L. Kingery

Urban soils are often not ideal planting sites due to removal of native topsoil or the mixing of topsoil and subsoil at the site. Adding pine bark based soil amendments to a clay soil altered soil bulk density and soil compaction which resulted in improved plant growth. Addition of nitrogen (N) or cotton gin waste to pine bark resulted in improved plant growth compared to pine bark alone. Growth of pansies (Viola × wittrockiana) during the 1999-2000 winter growing season was enhanced by the addition of pine bark plus nitrogen at 3- and 6-inch (7.6- and 15.2-cm) application rates (PBN3 and PBN6) and pine bark plus cotton gin waste at the 6 inch rate (CGW6). Plant size and flower production of vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were reduced by pine bark amendments applied at 3- or 6-inch rates (PB3 or PB6). Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) grown in plots amended with 3 or 6 inches of pine bark plus cotton gin waste (CGW3 or CGW6) and pine bark plus nitrogen at 3- or 6-inch rates (PBN3 or PBN6) produced greater shoot growth than other amendment treatments. In some instances PB3 treatments suppressed growth. High levels of N and soluble salts derived from CGW and PBN soil amendments incorporated into the soil probably contributed to the improved plant growth observed in this experiment.

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James E. Altland, James C. Locke, and Charles R. Krause

northeastern United States, most nursery substrates are comprised primarily of pine bark (60% to 80% by volume) and sphagnum moss (10% to 30% by volume), with minor additions of other components such as compost, sand, gravel, and humus (personal observation

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr., Brian E. Jackson, and Jeb S. Fields

In the eastern United States, nurseries use either loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) or longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris Mill.) bark as the primary organic component in soilless substrates. Pine bark was initially used as a growing substrate in the

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Magdalena Pancerz and James E. Altland

’ hakonechloa [ Hakonechloa macra (Makino) Honda] grew best in a 3 pine bark: 2 sphagnum peat: 1 sand (by volume) substrate with no DL amendment (pH 4.5). They speculated this favorable response was due to the plant’s adaptation to the low pH soil found in the

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James E. Altland and Kay Yeon Jeong

Ground pine bark pH ranges from 4.1 to 5.1 before amendment with other components or fertilizers ( Brown and Pokorny, 1975 ; Gillman et al., 1998 ; Wright et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Limestone is traditionally used to raise the pH of pine bark

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Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen Jr., Jeb S. Fields, James E. Altland, Zachary M. Easton, and Alex X. Niemiera

Pine bark is a widely used substrate component in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. nursery industry for the production of container-grown, woody ornamental crops. As a result of the high porosity and relatively low water

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr., Matthew J. Eick, Alexander X. Niemiera, James E. Altland, and Brian E. Jackson

. (2001) and Michalak et al. (2015) concluded that P runoff from agricultural operations is a primary contributor to eutrophication in the United States. Substrates used in containerized nursery crop production predominantly comprise pine bark ( Pinus

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Gary J. Kling, Hannah M. Mathers, and Luke Case

( Mathers, 2003 ). This study evaluated and compared rice hulls, landscape leaf-waste pellets, and pine bark as carriers for the preemergence herbicides oryzalin and diuron. The dinitroaniline herbicide group, which includes oryzalin, is the most widely used