Aeronautics and Space Administration. We would like to thank Dr. David Knauft, North Carolina State Univ., for providing us with peanut seed. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this
C.L. Mackowiak, R.M. Wheeler, G.W. Stutte, N.C. Yorio, and L.M. Ruffe
Vincent M. Russo
Amendment of soil with microorganisms during the growth cycle of one crop may affect development of succeeding crops. Species of Rhizobium bacteria or abuscular-mycorrhizal fungi were added alone to, or in combination with, potting soil in pots in a greenhouse. Controls were no amendments. Seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were planted and two levels of a combination NPK fertilizer, the recommended and one-fourth the recommended rate, were applied. After harvest of peanut and remoistening of soil, seed of the bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) or navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were sown into the same planting medium in pots without additional inoculation with microbes. Dry weights of above-ground vegetative and edible portions of crops were determined. Inoculum type only affected peanut top and total dry weights. The recommended fertilizer level did not affect peanut yield but did cause improvement in bell pepper and navy bean yield over that of the deficient fertilizer rate. In field experiments, peanut was planted into soil receiving Rhizobium spp. bacteria, or arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination. Controls consisted of no amendment. Only the recommended fertilizer rate was used. In the next 2 years, bell pepper or navy bean were established in plots without use of additional microbial amendment. Yields and nutrient contents of crops were determined. Type of inoculum did not affect yield or nutrient content in any crop. Bell pepper marketable yield was unaffected by year, and navy bean seed yield was higher in 2004 than in 2005. In both years, navy bean yields were below U.S. averages. Concentrations of most nutrients in edible portions of bell pepper and navy bean were lower in 2004 than in 2005. Results of the field trials were generally similar to those of greenhouse studies. Use of inocula did not provide substantial benefits to yield or nutrient content of peanut or vegetable crops that followed.
Benjamin D. Anderson, Gary W. Knox, Ann R. Blount, Cheryl L. Mackowiak, and Edward F. Gilman
Rhizoma peanut ( Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a leguminous, herbaceous, dinitrogen-fixing, warm-season perennial native to South America. It has been used almost exclusively as a forage crop in the United States since the 1930s. While hard frosts
Crop rotations can reduce problems that occur in monoculture planting systems. In 1990, at Lane, Okla., 0.5 ha of Bernow fine-loamy soil was planted to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In the following 5 years, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativas L.), navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) were planted in one of four rotations after 1, 2, or 3 years of peanut. The first vegetable planting in each annual rotation was followed by either vegetables or peanut in following years. In 3 of the 6 years, peanut or vegetables were planted in each rotation. Peanut yields in the first year averaged 6.6 Mg·ha-1, but were <1.9 Mg·ha-1 thereafter. Yields of the first vegetable planting, which followed 1 or 2 years of peanut, were normal for this location, but were significantly lower after 3 years of peanut. For second or third plantings of vegetables in rotations, yields were reduced up to 50% compared to the first vegetable planting. For most crops, the rotation that had 3 years of peanut followed by 3 years of vegetables generally produced the least cumulative yield. Numbers of sclerotia produced by soilborne plant pathogenic fungi fluctuated over the years, but were the same in the spring of the second and sixth years. Rotating these crops appears to have limited applicability for maintaining high vegetable or peanut yields.
Vincent M. Russo
Abiotic and biotic factors, and government farm policy, affect peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production especially in the Southern Plains of the United States. A coincident increase in vegetable production has led to interest in diversification of production on land that has historically supported peanut. A multi-year experiment was conducted from 1998 to 2001 to determine how rotating bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) with peanut affect yields of all three crops. In the first year, the site was planted to peanut, except for those areas of the field that would have monocultured bell pepper or sweet corn throughout the experiment. In following years, parts of the field that were planted with peanut were planted with either peanut, bell pepper, or sweet corn. Except for the monocultured crops, plots had 2 years of peanut and one year each of bell pepper or sweet corn in one of four rotations. Yields were determined and terminal market value was assigned to crops. Cumulative yields for monocultured bell pepper and sweet corn were 27.8 and 22.8 Mg·ha-1 after 4 years. The best yield of bell pepper or sweet corn in any rotation was 15.3 or 11.3 Mg·ha-1, respectively. Rotation did not affect peanuts, and cumulative yields for monocultured peanut were 8.39 Mg·ha-1 and averaged 2.13 Mg·ha-1 per year in rotations. Cumulative yields for all crops in rotations where vegetables were planted in the last 2 years averaged 21.5 Mg·ha-1 as opposed to 13.8 Mg·ha-1 when vegetables were planted in the middle 2 years of a 4-year rotation. Yields of all crops were modified by environmental conditions, and terminal market price affected crop value so that high yields were not always associated with high returns.
Robert E. Rouse and J. Jeffrey Mullahey
A 2-year establishment study of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) planted in row middles of a 1-year-old citrus grove was initiated in southwest Florida. The effect of herbicide and fertilizer treatment combinations on perennial peanut density was measured. Treatments were Fluazifop-p-butyl (Fusilade 2000 1E) herbicide, K-Mag fertilizer, Fluazifop-p-butyl + K-Mag + N, and a nontreated control. Four replications were arranged in a randomized complete-block design. After 2 years, there were no significant differences in plant density between treatments (96% cover) and the control (89% cover). Applications of Fluazifop-p-butyl in years one and two were effective in controlling grassy weeds such as common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers]. In this experiment. initiated 1 year after planting, perennial peanut without inputs (herbicide, fertilizer) was able to suppress common bermudagrass and to obtain a high level (89%) ground cover in 3 years (1991–94).
A.A. Trotman, C.E. Mortley, D.G. Mortley, P.P. David, and P.A. Loretan
Hydroponic growing systems have the potential to maximize phytomass production of peanut (Arachis hypogea) for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Two greenhouse experiments were conducted with plant nutrients supplied in a modified Evan's solutionusing a nutrient film technique. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of hydroponic growing systems on pod and foliage yield of `New Improved Spanish' and `Georgia Red' peanut. Sub-objectives were to evaluate (i) the impact of channel size and (ii) the impact of gradation in pore size on the separation of the rooting zone from the zone of gynophore development. The treatments consisted in the first experiment of a wide channel (122 by 15 by 46 cm) fitted with a perforated (3.0mm diam.) PVC grid; a narrow channel (122 by 15 by 15 cm) either fitted with a perforated grid or without a grid. For 'New Improved Spanish' peanut dry foliage yield tended to be higher in the wide channel treatment (0.33 kg/sq m). But the narrow channel yielded the highest mean pod dry weight (0.12 kg/sq m). Pore sizes of the screens ranged from infinity (no screen). perforated grid, square mesh. filtering screen (75u) and solid screen (no pores). For `Georgia Red' peanut, the impact of gradation in pore size of screens was variable: pod number was highest with the filtering (food) screen (216/sq m) but pod dry weight was highest for the square mesh treatment (0.09 kg/sq m). Foliage yield was significantly greater for the filtering (food) screen (1.12 kg/sq m) than in any of the other treatments. The findings of the research indicate that use of screens is feasible and will not retard pod development. The presence of a perforated grid tended to result in lower phytomass production for `New Improved Spanish' peanut.
D.G. Mortley, P.A. Loretan, W.A. Hill, C.K. Bonsi, C.E. Morris, R. Hall, and D. Sullen
`Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 °C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 μmol·m-2·s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N : 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 μS·cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.
C.L. Mackowiak, R.M. Wheeler, G.W. Stutte, and N.C. Yorio
As part of NASA's effort with bioregenerative life support systems, the growth of candidate crops is being investigated in controlled environments. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was selected for the high oil and protein content of its seed. Peanut cvs. Pronto and Early Bunch were grown from seed, using recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT) in 6-cm-deep, trapazoidal culture trays. The trays were fitted with slotted covers, which allowed developing pegs to reach the root zone. Use of a separate moss-filled pegging compartment above the root zone (tray within a tray) had little effect on seed yield, but resulted in a 60% increase in the nitric acid requirements for pH control. Yields from both cultivars were equivalent to field values on an area basis; however, harvest indices were lower than field values due to the luxuriant canopy growth under controlled environment conditions. Proximate analysis of seeds was similar to field values, with the exception of fat, which was ≈15% lower, and ash, which was ≈30% greater under controlled environment conditions, regardless of cultivar.
D.G. Mortley, C.K. Bonsi, P.A. Loretan, W.A. Hill, and C.E. Morris
Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). `Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mm Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 μS·cm–1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 °C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 μmol·m–2·s–1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.