Detached and intact leaves (first fully expanded leaf from the top) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) plantlets hardened in vitro with 2.0% polyethylene glycol (PEG) showed increased diffusive resistance (r) over those of nonhardened plantlets as measured by a steady state porometer. The leaves of the PEG hardened plants maintained a higher resistance throughout the one hour dessication period in approximately 30% relative humidity although both treatments showed an increase in diffusive resistance after 30 minutes. This indicates that the stomates are functioning in the in vitro tobacco plantlets. The higher (r) in the PEG treated plants may be due to more complete closure of stomates, higher cuticle wax content or a combination of both.
Farida Safadi and Harrison Hughes
C.P. Sharma and Sandhya Singh
When grown in refined sand with one-twentieth normal K supply, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. cv. Pusi) had lower dry matter and tissue concentration of K than the controls and developed visible symptoms characteristic of K deficiency. In K-deficient plants, the specific leaf weight, diffusive resistance, and proline concentration in leaves were significantly higher and relative water content (RWC), leaf water otential (ψ), stomatal aperture, stomatal density, and transpiration rate were significantly lower than in control plants. When K-deficient plants were supplied additional Na to the extent K was deficient, Na concentration in the plants increased and the plants recovered from the K deficiency effect on free proline concentration, RWC, leaf water potential, stomatal aperture, stomatal density, specific leaf weight, diffusive resistance, and transpiration.
Susan S. Han
Leaf yellowing of excised Easter lily leaves was significantly delayed by application of gibberellic acids ≥250 mg·liter-1 or benzyladenine ≥50 mg·liter-1. Rapid development of foliar chlorosis following cold storage was delayed significantly by applying 500 mg·liter-1 of GA3 or BA before storage. Poststorage treatments were less effective. Development of chlorosis was associated with rapid loss of fresh weight and was not related to the aperture of the stomates (diffusive resistance). Respiration rates of leaves treated with growth regulators were significantly lower than those of the controls.'
Alan R. Biggs
The proportion of spurs blooming on `McIntosh' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) was reduced significantly in 1986 and 1988, but not in 1987, following seasonal programs of six bitertanol or flusilazole treatments applied at two and three rates, respectively. The fungicides were not associated with any visible phytotoxic effect nor was shoot length reduced by any fungicide treatment. In two of three experiments conducted in May and June 1986, transpiration was reduced by the low rate of flusilazole and the high rate of bitertanol relative to both the captan and nonsprayed trees. In all three experiments, flusilazole at 1.4 g a.i./100 liter was associated with transiently reduced transpiration rates, lasting a minimum of 48 hours, relative to the nonsprayed control. Fungicides affected the diffusive resistance of apple leaves in all three experiments; however, there were no consistent treatment effects on diffusive resistance among the three experiments.
James Q. Garner Jr. and Thammasak Thongket
Proline content, leaf water potential (LWP), and leaf diffusive resistance (LDR) were determined for eight sweetpotato genotypes underwater stress conditions. Changes in fatty acid compositions of leaf polar lipids were determined in two sweetpotato genotypes during declining soil moisture. Proline did not accumulate and LWP did not decrease until soil moisture dropped below 10%, but LDR increased as soil moisture decreased. Genotypic differences in proline accumulation and LWP were found. Changes in fatty acid compositions occurred more in glycolipids than in phospholipids. Fatty acid changes were more pronouned in genotype MS20-2 than in “Vardaman”
Chana Phromtong, Floyd M. Woods, James O. Garner Jr., and Juan L. Silva
Sixteen sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) genotypes were chilled for 36 hours at 5C with 85% RH and a 12 hour photoperiod. Transpiration, leaf diffusive resistance and visual scores for plant quality were taken before chilling and 2 days after the chilling treatment. Differences between the before and after readings were used to indicate the extent of chilling injury or tolerance. Visual score gave a better separation of the genotype for tolerance, however, the difference in transpiration was the most critical of the two objective measurements.
Virginia I. Lohr and Caroline H. Pearson-Mires
Cut flowers of eight cultivars of Rosa hybrida L. were held in preservative solutions containing up to 4 mg F-/liter. Leaf diffusive resistance was increased by holding flowers in F-solutions. In most cultivars, fresh weight gain was decreased, the degree of flower opening was affected, and visual symptoms of injury were noted in the presence of. F- in the holding solution. Damage at 2 mg F-/liter was almost as severe as at 4 mg/liter. Number of days to petal abscission or bent-neck was shortened by F- for `Samantha' and `Bridal Pink'.
Thammasak Thongket and James O. Garner Jr.
Responses of four sweetpotato genotypes (`Centennial', `Travis', `Vardaman' and `MS 21-2') to water stress were studied. Two irrigation regimes (irrigation vs non-irrigation) were imposed on five-week old cuttings grown in a greenhouse environment. Transpiration and leaf diffusive resistance (LDR) were measured with a steady state porometer and mid-day total leaf water potentials were determined with a thermocouple psychrometer. Leaf growth was inhibited earlier than root growth. Water stress caused a reduction of leaf size in Centennial and in leaf number in the other three. Storage root number of Vardaman was not inhibited by limited soil moisture but development of storage roots was retarded by water stress. Total growth under non-irrigation of MS 21-2 was inhibited more than Vardaman. Mid-day leaf water potential did not show promise as a good indicator of water status. Genotypic differences in the water stress sensitivity as measured by LDR, were observed.
Jesse R. Quarrels and Paul G. Thompson
An experiment was conducted to determine the rate and frequency of irrigation needed for optimum yield in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)Lam). A line source irrigation system was used to provide continuously increasing amounts of water at each irrigation. The physiological responses of sweetpotato to water application were measured. There was an increase in leaf water potential with increasing rates of irrigation. Leaf diffusive resistance decreased as total water rate increased to 76% of pan evaporation (Epan) and then increased with higher rates of irrigation. Marketable yields increased as total water rate increased to 76% of Epan and then decreased rapidly with higher irrigation rates. Water relations measurements indicated that reduction in yield with higher amounts of water application was due to low soil oxygen content.
A method was devised for measuring the resistance to gaseous diffusion of bulky plant organs, such as apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits, in which the skin is the major barrier to diffusion. An individual fruit was incubated in a sealed container in the presence of a measured concentration of ethane for a certain time (usually 20 min). The fruit was then transferred to another, similar container. The ethane concentration that diffused into the new container was measured after an equal time (usually 20 min). An expression relating resistance to the measured ethane concentrations was derived from Fick's First Law of diffusion. An estimate of the internal volume of the fruit, accessible to ethane, was also necessary. The method was tested on several fruits of various apple cultivars. Longer incubation periods are necessary for apples with high diffusive resistance.