Global temperature increases are predicted over the next several decades. Earth surface temperatures in 1995 were the highest ever recorded. At day temperatures above 30C or night temperatures above 21C, tomato fruit production decreases. However, the temperature dependence of fruit production has not been described in terms of whether day temperatures, night temperatures, or mean temperatures are the most limiting. The process or tissue most sensitive to heat and most limiting to fruit production is also not known. The objectives of this experiment are to establish the temperature dependence of fruit set in tomatoes and to determine the importance of post-pollen production effects. We imposed a total of nine temperature treatments in a series of four separate experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30/24C treatment and two other day/night temperature combinations with differing means and/or day/night temperature differentials. As mean daily temperature increased from 25 to 29C, fruit set, fruit number, total fruit weight, and seediness index (a quantitative rate of fruit seed content) declined. Temperature treatments did not affect average fruit weight. Higher mean temperatures promoted flowering except at the highest temperature. Mean temperature was more important than day/night temperature differentials or the specific daytime or nighttime temperature treatment.
Mary M. Peet and Suguru Sato
Richard J. McAvoy
Poinsettias, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. cvs Lilo and Diva Starlight, were exposed to either warm day-cool night or cool day-warm night greenhouse temperature regimes. Day time temperatures were imposed between 900 to 1600 HR. Within each temperature regime, poinsettias were grown single stem or pinched and drenched with either 0.04 or 0.08 mg a.i. uniconazole per 1.6 1 pot or grown as untreated controls. Light levels (PAR) and potting medium and plant canopy temperatures were continuously monitored.
Over the course of the study, the day-night temperature differential (DIF), in the plant canopy, averaged 4.2C in the warm day regime and -1.4C in the cool day regime. The average daily temperature was lower (16.9C) in the warm day regime than in the cool day regime (18.7C).
DIF treatment significantly affected final leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight, The DIF treatment by cultivar interaction was significant for final poinsettia leaf area, stem, leaf and total plant dry weight, break number and average break length. Uniconazole significantly affected final plant height, stem and total plant dry weight, break number, average break length and specific leaf weight. Uniconazole by DIF treatment effects were not significant,
Mark S. Strefeler
The influence of temperature and genotype on plant height, internode length, and morphological development of 20 cultivars of Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey were determined by growing plants under one of three day–night temperature regimes (18/18C, 18/24C, and 24/18C). Temperature regime influenced internode length and plant height regardless of plant genotype. Internode length and plant height increased as the day–night temperature differential (DIF) increased from –6 to 6C. Average internode length increased from 5.3 ± 0.2 mm for –6C DIF to 6.3 ± 0.2 mm for +6C DIF. Genotypes differed for average internode length (4.2 to 8.7 mm) and plant height (54 to 95 mm). Node count increased as average daily temperature (ADT) increased. Node counts were 11.2 at 18/18C (ADT = 18), 11.9 at 24/18C (ADT = 20.3), and 12.1 at 18/24C (ADT = 21.8). Genotype × temperature interactions were not significant for the recorded traits. This study demonstrates that DIF is an effective height control strategy, regardless of geranium genotype, and that DIF combined with the selection of genetically short cultivars may eliminate the need for chemical height control in the commercial production of geraniums.
Mary M. Peet and Suguru Sato
Peet et al. (1997) demonstrated that in male-sterile tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill cv. NC8288) (MSs) provided with pollen from male-fertile plants (MFs) grown at 24°C daily mean, percent fruit set, total number and weight of fruit, and relative seediness decreased linearly as mean daily temperature rose from 25 to 29°C. The primary parameter affecting these variables was mean temperature, with day temperature at a given night temperature, night temperature at a given day temperature, and day/night temperature differential having secondary or no effect. To compare the effect of temperature stress experienced only by the female tissues with that experienced by the male tissues or both male and female tissues, MSs and MFs were grown in 28/22°C, 30/24°C, and 32/26°C day/night temperature chambers. Fruit yield and seed number per fruit declined sharply when increased temperatures were experienced by both male and female tissues (MFs). There was no fruit set in any of the MSs assigned to the 32/26°C pollen treatment, mostly because of the limited amount of pollen available from MFs. Both fruit production and seed content per fruit were also greatly reduced in MSs receiving pollen from 30/24°C grown MFs for the same reason. For plants experiencing stress only on female tissues (MSs grown at high temperatures, but receiving pollen from MFs grown at the lowest temperature), there was also a linear decrease in fruit yield as growth temperatures increased, as previously seen by Peet et al. (1997), but the temperature effect was less pronounced than that on pollen production. Thus, for this system, temperature stress decreased yield much more drastically when experienced by male reproductive tissues than when experienced only by female reproductive tissues.
Since Phalaenopsis orchids are CAM plants, learning how they respond to night temperature warmer than the day would help regulate their production. On 1 Apr. 2003, P. amabilis plants were subjected to day/night temperatures at 30/25, 25/30, 25/20, 20/25, 20/15, or 15/20 °C under 140 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF. After 4 months, the total length of new leaves was shorter as a result of fewer and shorter new leaves when nights were cooler than the days and as the average daily temperature declined. More spikes were produced at 25/20 and 20/25 °C than at 20/15 or 15/20 °C. In another experiment, P. amabilis plants were moved to the above conditions on 12 Aug. Plants exposed to 30/25 or 25/30 °C had more leaf growth than at lower temperatures, but no flowering. Plants that were exposed to 25/20 or 20/25 °C spiked in 2 weeks; but plants took 20 and 18 d to spike under 20/15 or 15/20 °C, respectively. Again, as average daily temperature decreased, there was less leaf growth. Cooler day than the night reduced vegetative growth, regardless of temperature. Plants at 25/20 or 20/25 °C had higher flower count (12) than those at 20/15 or 15/20 °C (8). In a third experiment, plants of a large-flowered Doritaenopsis hybrid spiked at 22–24 d when exposed to 25/20 or 20/25 °C, whereas 30-33 d were needed to spike under 20/15 or 15/20 °C. In a fourth experiment, a Doritaenopsis hybrid spiked after 22, 21, or 25 d under 25/25, 25/20, or 20/20 °C. However, 37 d was required to spike under 20/15 °C. These results suggest that the best temperature range for spiking these orchids is 25 to 20 °C and a day/night temperature differential is not needed for spiking when temperature is at or below 25 °C.
Will G. Neily, Peter R. Hicklenton, and David N. Kristie
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treatment with gibberellic acid (GA) on changes in diurnal growth rhythms caused by maturation and day/night temperature differential (DIF) in zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq. `Pompon'). Plants were treated with GA3 or with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor daminozide under three DIF regimes (+5 DIF: 21 °C DT/16 °C NT; 0 DIF: 18.7 °C constant; –5 DIF: 16.5 °C DT/21.5 °C NT), each with a daily average temperature of 18.7 °C, at two developmental stages: stage 1, the period of vegetative growth before flower bud formation; and stage 3, growth just before anthesis. Instantaneous stem elongation rates (SER) were measured using linear voltage displacement transducers. The DIF regime, as has been previously shown, influenced stem elongation primarily by altering the size of an early morning peak in SER; peak height increased as DIF became more positive. GA3 increased SER throughout the diurnal period with a proportionately larger effect on nighttime growth. Conversely, daminozide decreased SER more or less equally throughout the diurnal period. Neither GA3 or daminozide transformed growth patterns to match those of positive or negative DIF plants, but instead simply increased or decreased growth amplitude. Furthermore, neither growth regulator altered the basic diurnal SER pattern at any DIF, or influenced the observed shift to greater nighttime growth as plants matured from stage 1 to stage 3. The results suggest that neither the effects of DIF, or the age-related shift in diurnal growth distribution can be explained by changes in total availability of GA in the plant. Chemical name used: mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) butanedioic acid (daminozide).
Pauline Helen Kaufmann, Robert J. Joly, and P. Allen Hammer
The difference between night and day temperature (DIF = day - night temperature) has been shown to affect plant height. A positive DIF (+DIF), cooler night than day temperature, increases stem elongation while a negative DIF (- DIF), warmer night than day temperature, decreases stem elongation. The physiological mechanism underlying the growth response to DIF is not understood, however, and the effects of day/night temperature differentials on root permeability to water and root elongation rate have not been studied. The objective of this study was to describe how +DIF and -DIF temperature regimes affect leaf water relations, root water flux (Jv), root hydraulic conductivity (Lp), and root elongation rates of `Boaldi' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflora Kitam. `Boaldi' (syn. Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat.)] plants over time. Leaf turgor pressure (ψp) was 0.1 to 0.2 MPa higher in plants grown in a +6 °C DIF environment throughout both the light and dark periods, relative to those in a -6 °C DIF environment. Jv differed markedly in roots of plants grown in +DIF vs. -DIF environments. Rhythmic diurnal patterns of Jv were observed in all DIF treatments, but the relative timing of flux minima and maxima differed among treatments. Plants grown in positive DIF regimes exhibited maximum root flux at the beginning of the light period, while those in negative DIF environments had maximum root flux during the first few hours of the dark period. Plants grown in +DIF had significantly higher Lp than -DIF plants. Plants grown in +DIF and -DIF environments showed differences in the diurnal rhythm of root elongation. During the dark period, +DIF plants exhibited minimal root elongation rates, while -DIF plants exhibited maximal rates. During the light period, the converse was observed. In -DIF temperature regimes, periods of rapid root elongation coincided with periods of high Jv. Results of this study suggest that negative DIF environments lead to leaf turgor reductions and markedly alter diurnal patterns of root elongation. These changes may, in turn, act to reduce stem elongation.
stated and subjected to a wider day/night temperature differential, including 30/20, 20/30, 25/15, and 15/25 °C. Other environmental factors remained the same as in Expt. 1. Data were collected similar to this experiment after 29 weeks. There were 22
Cristian E. Loyola, John M. Dole, and Rebecca Dunning
stem during postharvest handling and transportation ( Zhao et al., 2013 ). Research work has been invested in increasing the mechanical strength of cut flowers such as peonies by using calcium sprays, day/night temperature differentials, photosynthetic
Jasmine Jenji Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng
day/night temperature differential may have had on stem elongation. Environmental data, logged in 15-min intervals, are summarized in Table 1 . Table 1. Mean day and night temperatures and relative humidity during the light-treatment period for