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Shuoli Zhao, Chengyan Yue, Mary H. Meyer, and Charles R. Hall

and 96% of flowers were purchased for female recipients ( Society of American Florists, 2005 ; Yue and Hall, 2010 ). Meanwhile, preferences for flower cultivar and color also vary by gender ( Yue and Behe, 2010 ) and age group ( Yue and Hall, 2010

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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck, and John P.G. McQueen

Container nurseries in Oregon use fresh and aged douglas fir bark (DFB). Although there is no general agreement as to what constitutes fresh, aged, or composted bark, the terms are used frequently in the nursery industry. For clarity, we offer the

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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Daniel M. Sullivan, and Donald A. Horneck

nursery substrates (60% to 80% of the substrate mix, personal observation) and is often incorporated to some extent with peatmoss, sand, compost, pumice, and other materials, including fertilizers. Fresh and aged DFB are used in Oregon (OR) container

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William Garrett Owen

age or stage of development ( Tolman et al., 1990 ). For instance, Bryson and Mills (2014) reported an estimated age and where the leaf tissue was sampled by stating “mature leaves from new growth,” while Campbell (2000) only reported leaf tissue

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Gokhan Hacisalihoglu

-maintenance grass that is common on lawns, especially in northern Florida ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Sources, uses, and cultivars of three warm-season turfgrass species used for seed germination, matriconditioning, and aging studies in Tallahassee, FL. Establishing a

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Charles S. Vavrina

The research reviewed here represents the majority of the information available on transplant age to date. When the results of these studies are distilled down to the “ideal” transplant age for setting of a specific crop, we generally arrive at the recommendations found in the 1962 edition of Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers. The conflicting results in the literature on transplant age may be due to the different environmental and cultural conditions that the plants were exposed to, both in the greenhouse and in the field. The studies did reveal that the transplant age window for certain crops might be wider than previously thought. Older transplants generally result in earlier yields while younger transplants will produce comparable yields, but take longer to do so. Our modern cultivars, improved production systems, and technical expertise enable us to produce high yields regardless of transplant age. The data, in general, support the view that if a vegetable grower requires resets after an catastrophic establishment failure (freeze, flood, etc.), they need not fear the older plants usually on hand at the transplant production facility.

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Charles S. Vavrina and Michael D. Orzolek

As early as 1929, university scientists began the quest to determine the ideal age at which to transplant tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Investigations have included seedlings of 2 to 15 weeks of age produced in wood, peat, plastic, or Styrofoam containers. Early researchers often omitted descriptions of soil mixes and nutrient regimes, and used a wide variety of container types. Later investigators were inclined to use commercial soilless mixes, well-defined nutrient regimes, and polystyrene trays. Pioneers of transplant age research tended to use plants of 7 weeks and older, whereas work within the past 30 years has concentrated on younger plants. Many researchers drew conclusions after only 1 year of experimentation, while others found that results varied across years. Prior to the 1980s, virtually all studies were initiated and conducted in areas far from the thriving transplant industry established in the southeastern United States. Southern-grown transplants often were not in cluded for comparison, and few studies were implemented using plants grown under commercial conditions. After more than 60 years of transplant age research, it appears that transplants of 2 to 13 weeks can produce comparable yields, depending on the many factors involved in commercial production.

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Yan-Ling Zheng and Huan-Cheng Ma

Seed deterioration is expressed as the loss of quality, viability, and vigor during aging. Several comprehensive reviews have identified free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, enzyme inactivation or protein degradation, disruption of cellular

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Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Viwe Dyafta, and Hintsa T. Araya

, 2009 ). According to Schwab et al. (2008) , the international trade of essential oil increases annually on average by 10% a year. It is well documented that plant developmental stages as well as leaf ages have a strong effect on the volatile

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Corinne F.J. Rutzke, Alan G. Taylor, and Ralph L. Obendorf

( Kataki and Taylor, 1997 , 2001 ; Taylor et al., 1999 ). The ANA ratio index test was shown to detect the early phases of seed aging for several species. The test for cabbage seeds uses two states of oxygen availability (aerobic and hypoxic) and two