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Dan Jin, Philippe Henry, Jacqueline Shan, and Jie Chen

, densely branched, with broad leaflets and the latter as relatively tall, laxly branched, with narrow leaflets ( Anderson, 1980 ), which aligned with Schultes but differed from Lamarck. Cannabis can be assigned as one of three chemotypes based on THC and

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

., 2015 ); although ∆ 9 -THC and cannabidiol (CBD) have been most widely studied for their psychoactive and medicinal properties ( Elzinga et al., 2015 ; Mechoulam et al., 1970 ; Vemuri and Makriyannis, 2015 ). In live plants, cannabinoids exist

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

been identified ( Ahmed et al., 2008 , 2015 ; ElSohly and Slade, 2005 ), although ∆ 9 -THC and cannabidiol (CBD) are considered the primary psychoactive and medicinal components ( Elzinga et al., 2015 ; Mechoulam et al., 1970 ). In live plants

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Dave Hawley, Thomas Graham, Michael Stasiak, and Mike Dixon

Regulations, packaged cannabis to be sold to consumers must indicate the percent Δ 9 -THC, total Δ 9 -THC (also described as “potential potency”), cannabidiol (CBD), and total CBD on the package label ( Government of Canada, 2016 ). Total Δ 9 -THC provides a

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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

have been identified; however, the most abundant and medicinally important cannabinoids are CBD and THC ( de Meijer et al., 2003 ). Recently, interest in the medicinal effects of CBD has increased because, unlike THC, CBD is nonpsychoactive ( Russo

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids; Chandra et al., 2017 ; Potter, 2014 ). Some cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, have been widely studied for their psychoactive and medicinal properties ( Elzinga et al., 2015 ; Mechoulam et al., 1970 ; Vemuri and Makriyannis

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Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Lin Zhou, and Yan Wang

related structural genes in fully opened petals of Pl and Pd ( Fig. 4 ; Table 1 ). The 11 genes were CHS , CHI , DFR , F3H , FNS , FLS , anthocyanin 3- O -glycosyltransferase ( 3GT ), anthocyanin 5- O -glycosyltransferase ( 5GT ), 7GT , THC , and

Open access

Lauren E. Kurtz, Jonathan D. Mahoney, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

Cannabis sativa is a diploid, dioecious species and is commonly referred to as hemp or marijuana, depending on the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produced by the plant. Female plants are preferred for the production of cannabinoids, such as

Open access

Lauren E. Kurtz, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), fiber, and grain, from which a wide range of consumer products are derived ( Small, 2015 ). Cannabinoids have reported medicinal value and are produced in the glandular trichomes of the plant, which are found in the greatest density on the

Open access

Melissa Moher, Max Jones, and Youbin Zheng

experiment was conducted in a walk-in tissue culture chamber at the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. Established shoot cultures of female Cannabis sativa L. ‘802’, a high Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol genotype (15% to 20% THC; for molecular