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Joel Flagler

It has been observed that the process of horticulture can help to heal physical, mental, and social disabilities. Professionally trained horticultural therapists prescribe and administer planting and gardening activities to provide benefits to people of all ages and abilities. Horticultural therapy programs are now commonplace in hospitals, geriatric centers, schools, rehabilitation facilities, community gardens and prisons. One common goal in all of these programs is to help heal, teach and retrain individuals through the use of plants.

As a result of repeated successes, horticulture is being widely accepted as an effective therapeutic tool. Research is underway to measure the effectiveness of horticultural therapy in clinical and correctional settings. Databases are being developed to document and substantiate the beneficial effects of horticulture on human well-being. With such research results we can better understand the value of horticultural therapy in the recovery and rehabilitation processes.

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Hye Ran Kwack and Paula Diane Relf

As the level of urbanization has increased, many people in Korea have begun to recognize the beneficial effects of plants in our immediate surroundings and involvement in horticultural activities. Today, an increasing number of Koreans attempt to improve the quality of life and enhance educational effectiveness through horticultural activities. Kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high schools have initiated garden-based programs. Some universities include courses focusing on horticulture applications to human well-being in their regular graduate programs or in their social education curricula. A few general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and rehabilitation centers have begun applying horticulture as a means of treatment. Most of the research articles in Korea on various aspects of human issues in horticulture have been published since the foundation of two academic societies, the Korean Horticultural Therapy Association and the Korean Society for Plants, People, and Environment. These articles are primarily focused on the areas of school gardening, healing gardens, and psychological or physiological effects of horticultural activities. For the future development of human issues in horticulture in Korea, several areas need to be enhanced including: interdisciplinary studies of horticulture and social education; development of different skills, techniques,and scales to validate the effects of horticultural therapy, healing gardens, and gardening as a teaching tool in public education; and an organization empowered to certify horticultural therapists.

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Min Hyeong Kwon, Changwan Seo, Jongyun Kim, Moonil Kim, Chun Ho Pak, and Woo-Kyun Lee

to 1920 Landscape J. 16 161 173 Ulrich, R.S. 1999 Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research, p. 27–86. In: C. Cooper Marcus and M. Barnes (eds.). Healing gardens. Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations, Wiley, New York, NY 10

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Allen V. Barker

urban horticulture and reviews research on school, community, public, and prison gardens. The book includes the history, importance, and benefits of selected topics in urban horticulture. The book has ten chapters. The chapters emphasize the persons and

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Alexander G. Litvin

-farm due to the simplicity of the splice grafting method and the potentially high survival rate of transplants postgrafting (Buajaila et al., 2018). When proper grafting techniques are used, grafted tomato transplant survival after healing has been shown to

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Sarah A. Masterson, Megan M. Kennelly, Rhonda R. Janke, and Cary L. Rivard

plants are sold to nearby farmers and/or gardeners. In the 2014 survey at the Great Plains Growers Conference mentioned above (n = 265), 47% of respondents indicated that they would prefer to grow their own grafted plants, whereas 25% indicated they would

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Paige E. Boyle, Michelle M. Wisdom, and Michael D. Richardson

( Cynodon dactylon L. Pers). Seven forbs commonly found in Arkansas lawns ( Table 1 ) were selected based on reported mature height and bloom period ( Missouri Botanical Garden, n.d. ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2019 ). All entries were started from

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Jules Janick and Kim Hummer

The present-day emphasis of horticulture and health is an extension of ancient and medieval traditions. The relationship of healing and the horticultural arts predates written history and relates to ancient wisdom, custom, and folklore. The use of

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Esther McGinnis, Alicia Rihn, Natalie Bumgarner, Sarada Krishnan, Jourdan Cole, Casey Sclar, and Hayk Khachatryan

healing aspects of life. Krishnan and Novy (2016) identified four major programmatic areas of public gardens—recreation, horticulture, plant research, and education and outreach. As important aesthetic, cultural, and scientific establishments, gardens

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straight species in feeding trials and a common garden experiment. They found no consistent reduction in the value of varieties to insects in any trait except when green leaves had been selected for red or purple pigmentation. Mechanical Harvest and