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Blair Buckley and Katharine Pee

Ease of pod detachment is an important consideration when selecting cultivars for mechanical harvest at the mature-green stage. Sixteen southernpea cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for pod detachment force. The cultivars varied in pod detachment force. MN-13 had the largest detachment force with a measurement of 2.18 kg. Royal Cream had the smallest detachment force with a measurement of 1.2 kg. Pod length, pod diameter, pod weight, basal pod fill, and length of peduncle synapse was recorded for each pod sampled for detachment force. There was no clear association between pod detachment force and the five traits.

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Hong Chen, Greg McCollum, Elizabeth Baldwin and Jinhe Bai

collected, AS and HLB, because it was not possible to find trees that qualified as HLB-B trees. Samples were taken on 19 Jan., 3 and 19 Feb., and 3 Mar. 2014 in the same manner as for ‘Hamlin’. Fruit detachment force. The FDF was measured using a digital

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Carl E. Motsenbocker

Field and greenhouse studies examined the fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit and pedicel characteristics of two lines of tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) at several stages of maturity. The detachment force of red-mature `McIlhenny Select' fruit at the calyx-fruit detachment area was lower than that of less mature fruit stages. The force required to detach red-mature Hard Pick (HP) tabasco fruit was higher than that of redmature `McIlhenny Select' fruit in the field and greenhouse. The fruit detachment force of red field-grown HP fruit was higher, and in the greenhouse was lower, than that of green or breaker fruit. HP fruit of all maturity stages, except red-mature, separated similarly to `McIlhenny Select' fruit with little or no fruit tissue attached to the calyx. Fruit detachment force was not correlated with any fruit or pedicel characteristics studied.

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Carl E. Motsenbocker and Kay P. Gersch

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to examine fruit detachment force and plant parameters of two strains of Tabasco (Capsicum frutescens) at different stages of maturity. The detachment force of mature red `McIlhenny Select' at the fruit-receptacle detachment area was less than that of breaker and mature green fruit. `McIlhenny Select' separated cleanly at all stages of maturity. A wild type Tabasco strain `HP' did not abscise at the red mature stage; fruit detachment force was greater than that of `McIlhenny Select'. The detachment force of mature green and breaker `HP' fruit were similar to those of `McIlhenny Select' at the same stage of maturity. Fruit weight, length, and width of the two tabasco strains were not different. The utility of the `McIlhenny Select' and `HP' strains for physiological studies of pepper fruit abscission will be discussed.

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Kay P. Gersch, Carl E. Motsenbocker and Gregory A. Lang

Cayenne pepper fruit adhere tightly to the calyx/receptacle, increasing the cost of hand harvest and restricting mechanical harvest. Eight (8) cayenne pepper genotypes were selected from field observations to characterize fruit detachment forces(FDFs) and examine potential relationships between FDF and other fruit parameters. A preliminary greenhouse experiment revealed two genotypes with consistently lower FDFs and two with consistently higher FDFs over several progressive harvest. A field experiment confirmed these characteristics. No correlation between any fruit parameter and FDF was found to be consistent over the genotypes studied.

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Schuyler D. Seeley, Hossein Damavandy, J. LaMar Anderson, Richard Renquist and Nancy W. Callan

Abbreviations: CL, chlorophyll; CO, Colorado; GR, growth regulator; LR, leaf retention; MT, Montana; PF, leaf detachment pull force; UT, Utah; XN, xanthophyll. 1 Current address: 2355 Weymouth Lane, Crofton, MD 21114. This report is based, in part

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Anish Malladi, Tripti Vashisth and Lisa Klima Johnson

and Gaye, 1999 ). The application of fruit-loosening agents that can decrease the force required for fruit detachment can contribute greatly toward enhancing the efficiency of mechanical harvesting ( Burns, 2002 ; Burns et al., 2005 ). Abscission

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Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns, Kelly T. Morgan and Fritz Roka

speed, and fruit detachment force ( Whitney, 1997 ). There are two kinds of canopy shakers currently used in the commercial citrus industry in Florida. “Pull-behind” canopy shakers are pulled behind a tractor and drop fruit to the ground ( Whitney

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Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns

, fruit detachment force, and gene expression. Leaf abscission and FDF were measured immediately after treatment and after 6 h and 1, 2, 4, and 7 d of application. Ten branches (each with about 100 leaves; ≈1 year old) per treatment were tagged to follow

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Raquel González-Herranz, Kimberley A. Cathline, Matthew W. Fidelibus and Jacqueline K. Burns

fruit-bearing canes ≈1 week before harvest, which reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and causes the rachis to become dry and brittle so that the cluster tends to break apart during harvest, allowing some berries to remain attached to their pedicels