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Azlan Zahid, Md Sultan Mahmud, Long He, James Schupp, Daeun Choi, and Paul Heinemann

useful for apple trees ( He and Schupp, 2018 ; Zahid et al., 2021a ) because they can result in unwanted vegetative growth. Robotic pruning is a selective branch operation that can produce accurate cuts using an end-effector tool attached to the

Free access

Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

Open access

Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch

height was (mean ± sd ) 0.45 ± 0.05 m and the trunk diameter was 0.11 ± 0.01 m. The trees had three to five main branches. The canopy height of the aboveground level was 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The height from the ground to the canopy skirt was 0.9 ± 0.2 m. The

Free access

John M. Dole and Harold F. Wilkins

Abbreviations: BD, `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond'; CR, `Eckespoint C-1 Red'; TR, free-branching plants propagated from restricted-branching `Eckespoint C-1 Red' scions after being grafted onto free-branching `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' stocks

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro, and Jeffrey Williamson

Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

Free access

Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

Almond trees develop fruit laterally on extension shoots and short shoots called spurs on 2-year-old or older wood ( Kester et al., 1996 ). The pattern of shoots and spurs along branches is of major importance because they determine tree

Open access

Ryan M. Warner

, cultural information for producing greenhouse-grown stevia as a transplant or potted plant is lacking. As with many herbs grown for commercial sales in pots, it is desirable to produce a full, well-branched plant that is sold during the vegetative stage of

Open access

Ralph Scorza, Li Zailong, G.W. Lightner, and Lenard E. Gilreath


Three-year-old limbs of unpruned standard (ST), semidwarf (SD), compact (CT), and dwarf (DW) seedling peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were separated into component parts at harvest. CT and DW trees had allocated higher percentages of dry matter to one- and 2-year-old branches than ST and SD trees. Although the proportion of dry weight in current season shoots was highest in CT trees compared with the other tree types, fruit dry weight was relatively low. In a separate study ST, SD, and CT trees were pruned and left unpruned, and current season shoot and fruit growth was recorded. Pruning increased the wood dry weight per trunk cross sectional area in current season growth in ST trees and increased the average length of shoots and lowered light penetration in ST and SD trees, but pruning did not affect current season shoot dry weight or length in CT trees. Shoot dry weight and shoot length were greatest in pruned ST trees. The number of shoots was not affected by pruning in any tree type. Total fruit dry weight did not differ with pruning or tree type.

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins, and Joyce Latimer

., 2006 ). PGRs can increase branching and improve plant architecture in plants by releasing apical dominance and allowing dormant lateral buds to expand, which results in fuller, well-branched plants ( Cline, 1991 ). However, using PGRs can be challenging

Free access

Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei, and Wenyan Han

Shoot branching, being a major agronomic trait affecting crop yield, is a topic of concern in cultivation ( Chen et al., 2016 ; Muhr et al., 2016 ). The regulation of shoot branching is an important aspect for crop improvement in agricultural