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N.E. Maness, J.E. Motes, B. Bostian, and R.J. Schatzer

Sage is a perennial, semi-evergreen herb and is a multiharvest crop. In a 4-year field study in Bixby, Okla., three N rates, including 60, 120, and 180 kg/h, and four fall harvest dates, including 40 and 20 days before the average first freeze date in Bixby, the average freeze date, and 20 days past the average freeze date were evaluated on sage (Salvia officinalis) production. The fall harvest dates were ≈20 Sept., 10 Oct., 1 Nov., or 20 Nov. each year. Plots were established with transplants in Spring 1990. On all plots, growing-season harvests were executed once in spring and once in summer, followed by the final harvest in the fall annually (1991 to 1994). Results indicated N effects on yield and the N × final fall harvest date interaction were not significant for any of the years. Yields were significantly reduced in the 40 and 20 days prefreeze date harvest treatment plots in 1992, 1993, and 1994 by a hard freeze of –7C on 2 Nov. 1991 with no prior killing frost. Plant stand loss was 61% and 8% in the 40 and 20 days prefreeze harvested plots, respectively. Injury, but not plant loss, in the 20 days prefreeze harvested plots contributed to the yield reduction. Yields in the two later final harvest treatment plots were not affected.

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James E. Motes, Nancy E. Maness, and Bruce Bostian

Dalmation sage was transplanted in rows 92 cm apart with in-row spacing of 30 cm on 12 April 1989 at the Vegetable Research Station, Bixby, Oklahoma. Plots one row by 55 m long were established to determine the best timing for harvest and to observe the effect of cutting height and date on yield and regrowth in the fall and regrowth the following season.

Four harvest dates in 1989 were 15 August, 25 August, 18 September and 8 November. In addition, one half of the plots harvested 15 August were recut on 5 November. Cutting height was 10 cm on 15 August, 12 cm on 25 August and 15 cm at all other harvest dates in 1989 and 1990. Four harvests were made on all plots during the 1990 season except those cut or recut in November 1989. Spring 1990 regrowth was very poor and no harvest was possible in April 1990 on November 1989 harvested plots. Highest total dry weight yields for the 1989 and 1990 seasons were produced by the 15 August initial cut with a 5 November recut (11,522 kg·ha-1) and the 8 November 1989 cut plots (10,881 kg·ha-1). Other plots that were harvested once in August or September 1989 plus four separate harvests in 1990 produced a total yield near 9,500 kg·ha-1. The 15 cm height of cut appeared to be superior to cutting closer to the soil.

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Iro Kokkinou, Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Dimitra Varela

. Bacci, D. 2010 Initial agronomic performances of Mediterranean xerophytes in simulated dry green roofs Urban Ecosyst. 13 349 363 Bettaieb, I. Zakhama, N. Aidi Wannes, W. Kchouk, M.E. Marzouk, B. 2009 Water deficit effects on Salvia officinalis fatty

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Santosh Shiwakoti, Shital Poudyal, Thomas Horgan, Natasha Kovatcheva, and Anna Dobreva

Garden sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) is a small herbaceous aromatic, medicinal, and culinary plant from the Lamiaceae family ( Pederson, 2000 ). Garden sage essential oil is extracted from the whole above-ground herbage and has numerous

Open access

Christopher J. Currey, Vincent C. Metz, Nicholas J. Flax, Alex G. Litvin, and Brian E. Whipker

sativum ), and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) growth ( Appling, 2012 ). Maintaining the substrate moisture content of containerized sweet basil, dill ( Anethum graveolens ), parsley, and sage ( Salvia officinalis ) at 40% to 50% less (by volume) than

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John E. Montoya Jr., Michael A. Arnold, Juliana Rangel, Larry R. Stein, and Marco A. Palma

? Previous studies have investigated similar questions, but none has directly quantified differences in yield. Barbir et al. (2015) tested multiple herbaceous plants, including borage ( Borago officinalis ), to find suitable plant species in Spain with the

Open access

Annika E. Kohler and Roberto G. Lopez

. Litvin-Zabal (2019) reported shoot fresh and dry mass increased when increasing the DLI for hydroponically grown mint ( Mentha spp.), oregano ( Origanum vulgare ), sage ( Salvia officinalis ), and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris ). For example, the shoot fresh

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Jerry T. Walker

Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.

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Michael Arnold and Garry McDonald

Multiple experiments conducted over the past 5 years suggest that greenhouse-grown bedding plants, particularly fall-propagated cool-season annuals, may exhibit reductions in vegetative growth and flowering in response to plant growth regulators (PGRs) applied at rates commonly used by growers. Studies using Viola ×wittrockiana Gams as a model system indicated that paclobutrazol applied at production stages and rates reportedly used by growers could result in significant postharvest residual responses that adversely impacted landscape performance. Most of these rates were also included within the recommended ranges on the agricultural chemical labels. Multiple applications to the same plants during production increased the severity of the residual responses and decreased the rates at which residual responses were detectable in landscape plantings. Tests with additional taxa, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC, Calendula officinalis L., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin, Lantana urticoides Hayek `L.S. Red', Lupinus texensis Hook., Plumbago auriculata Lam., Salvia greggii Gray, and Verbena canadensis Kunth `Homestead Purple', PGR formulations and at various times of the year indicate that the postharvest landscape responses to PGRs vary among taxa and seasons. These results strongly suggest that in order for researchers to make responsible recommendations on PGR use, studies must include not only greenhouse or nursery production data, but also subsequent testing for residual responses to the PGRs in landscape settings.

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Dale T. Lindgren and Daniel Schaaf

Two studies in west-central Nebraska to determine the survival of wildflowers planted with buffalo grass [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] and blue grama grass [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.)] were conducted in 6 and 10 year studies. In total, 19 forbs and 1 grass were transplanted with `Texoka' buffalo grass in the first study, and 16 forbs were planted in a split-plot design into 3 buffalo grass selections, blue grama or a clean cultivated plot in the second study. Survival between transplants in both studies varied significantly. In the first study, survival was significantly higher for little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium Michx.) (85%), bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis L.) (100%), and stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L.) (100%) over the 6 years of the study. In the second study, there were significant differences between species for survival, with grayhead prairie coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnh.] (85%) and pitcher sage (Salvia azurea Lam.) (80%) having the highest survival at the end of the 10-year study. There were significant differences in height and number of flower stalks within S. rigida, R. pinnata, and S. azurea between years and between main plots. This study demonstrates differences in survival and growth of wildflowers when planted in conjunction with buffalo grass and blue grama grass.