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Filip Jovanović, Dragica Obratov-Petković, Ivana Bjedov, Ivana Živanović, Sonja Braunović, Tatjana Ćirković-Mitrović, and Gordana Tomović

Species of the genus Galanthus L. (Amaryllidaceae), known as snowdrops, rank among the finest garden plants and are particularly welcomed as early flowering harbingers of spring. The genus comprises 21 species of bulbous, petaloid monocotyledons

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Michael D. Richardson, John McCalla, Tina Buxton, and Filippo Lulli

report that observed performance of these species in warm-season lawns. Ongoing work in Italy has examined several bulb species, including hairy crocus ( Crocus pulchellus ), snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis ), and tenby daffodil ( Narcissus minor ), in a

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Paul D. Curtis, Gwen B. Curtis, and William B. Miller

Many plants have mechanisms of physical or chemical resistance that protect them from herbivores in their environment. Vertebrates such as meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) cause significant damage to ornamental plantings and home gardens. Our goal was to identify flowering bulbs that could be used to design more herbivore-resistant home landscapes. Single-choice feeding trials with captive prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were used to assess the relative resistance of 30 bulb varieties to deter rodents from consuming fresh plant material and freeze-dried, powdered bulb mixed with a preferred food (applesauce). Each fresh bulb and dried-bulb/applesauce mix was offered twice to 12 to 15 pairs of adult prairie voles. Bulb varieties that resulted in the lowest mean consumption were assumed to be the most resistant to feeding activity. With fresh bulbs, only tulips (Tulipa spp.) exhibited no resistance to prairie vole feeding. Dried-bulb/applesauce mixes containing hyacinth (Hyacinth spp.), crocus (Crocus spp.), corn leaf iris (Iris bucharica), dutch and dwarf iris (Iris reticulata), onion (Allium spp.), and squill (Scilla siberica) were also readily consumed, and thus, these bulbs could be damaged at sites with high rodent activity. Daffodil (Narcissus spp.), painted arum (Arum italicum), camass (Camassia leichtlinii), glory-of-the-snow (Chinodoxa forbesii), autumn crocus (Colchicum spp.), crown imperial (Fritillaria imperialis), persian fritillaria (Fritillaria persica), snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs were resistant to prairie vole feeding in both forms (fresh bulbs and dried-bulb/applesauce mixes). Consequently, all of the specialty flower bulbs tested, except tulip, exhibited some resistance to prairie vole feeding in their fresh form, and could be suitable for designing herbivore-resistant landscapes.

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Hetal M. Kalariya, Guido Schnabel, Cesar Petri, and Ralph Scorza

-OP-1 to P. cinnamomi . Similarly, transgenic A. thaliana lines with high levels of disease resistance did not correspond to the ones with the highest expression of the insecticidal lectin GNA ( Galanthus nivalis agglutinin ) in roots ( Ripoll et al

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Alexis K. Nagel, Guido Schnabel, Cesar Petri, and Ralph Scorza

capsici ( Lee et al., 2003 ) and in tobacco against Phytophthora parasitica ( Koo et al., 2002 ). Expression of the monocot mannose-binding garlic lectin, GNA ( Galanthus nivalis agglutinin), was able to combat RKN infestation in Arabidopsis ( Ripoll

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Andrew P. Nyczepir, Alexis K. Nagel, and Guido Schnabel

. Favery, B. Lecomte, P. Van Damme, E. Peumans, W. Abad, P. Jouanin, L. 2003 Evaluation of the ability of lectin from snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis ) to protect plants against root-knot nematodes Plant Sci

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Valentina Schmitzer, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, and Vlasta Cunja

future. Literature Cited Aschan, G. Pfanz, H. 2006 Why snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis L.) tepals have green marks? Flora 201 623 632 10.1016/j.flora.2006.02.003 Ayala Arreola, J. Castillo González, A.M. Valdez Aguilar, L.A. Colinas León, M.T. Pineda Pineda

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Eliezer S. Louzada and Chandrika Ramadugu

). Yang et al. (2000) generated transgenic ‘Rio Red’ grapefruit plants expressing a CTV coat protein gene and an antiviral agglutinin gene from the snowdrop plant ( Galanthus nivalis ). Febres et al. (2003) transformed ‘Duncan’ grapefruit with genomic