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Ying Yang, Xian-Ge Hu, Bingsong Zheng, Yue Li, Tongli Wang, Anket Sharma, Huwei Yuan, and Jian-Feng Mao

nucleotides (nt) in length, which regulate target gene expression via the RNA interference pathway at translational repression or posttranscriptional degradation stage ( Lagos-Quintana et al., 2001 ). The important miRNA roles have been discovered in

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Qianqian Shi, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Xiaoning Luo, Jianrang Luo, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang, and Long Li

squamosal promoter binding protein-like gene ( SPL9 ), which is a negative regulator of anthocyanin accumulation ( Gou et al., 2011 ), and miRNA828 downregulates anthocyanin accumulation through its target genes AtTAS4-siR81 (−) and R2R3-MYB TFs ( Luo et al

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

Wright, 2002 ). There are six target sites in the ALS gene that, when mutated, commonly confer resistance to ALS inhibitors: Ala 122 , Pro 197 , Ala 205 , Asp 376 , Trp 574 , and Ser 653 ( Tranel and Wright, 2002 ). In 2011, the first P. annua biotype

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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

with only weak protective activity against apple scab ( Cooley et al., 2008 ; Ellis et al., 1998 ; Lewis and Hickey, 1972 ). Both elemental sulfur and lime sulfur fungicides have adverse, non-target effects on beneficial predatory mites ( Holdsworth

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Rose Palumbo, Wai-Foong Hong, Guo-Liang Wang, Jinguo Hu, Richard Craig, James Locke, Charles Krause, and David Tay

genetic similarity of the accessions through molecular characterization by target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) markers ( Hu and Vick, 2003 ). TRAP is a technique that combines the AT- and GC-rich primers of SRAP (sequence-related amplification

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Bing Li, Jingjing Zhang, Xiurui Gao, Xiuqing Pan, Rong Zhou, and Yanrong Wu

reproductive growth stage than during the vegetative growth phase ( Tang et al., 2012 ). Numerous studies have identified the roles of miRNAs in regulating plant male sterility primarily by inhibiting target genes that affect anther development ( Dong et al

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Rui Li, Lu Fan, Jingdong Lin, Mingyang Li, Daofeng Liu, and Shunzhao Sui

-developed ( Liang et al., 2013 ; Liu et al., 2016a ). A large number of target populations can be developed by mutation induction ( Wani et al., 2014 ). Breeders can use them for plant artificial selection to breed new cultivars ( Wani et al., 2014 ). To breed new

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Bridget K. Behe

Firms have limited resources that cannot be allocated efficiently to the market as a whole, but can be targeted to selected customer groups. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct customer components. Selected products and services that best meet the needs of a selected customer group are targeted to that particular segment in a marketing strategy. Market segmentation and product-targeting concepts help management efficiently allocate scarce resources as part of a comprehensive strategy to expand revenues and profits.

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Theodore J. Kisha and Christopher S. Cramer

populations when compared with SSRs ( Gaudeul et al., 2004 ; Woodhead et al., 2005 ). However, the production and scoring of AFLP markers in a genome as large as that of Allium species is problematic ( Volk et al., 2004 ). Targeted region amplification

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Charles J. Wasonga, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales, Timothy G. Porch, and Phillip D. Griffiths

; Stavely and Pastor-Corrales, 1989 ). Snap bean cultivars with targeted resistance gene combinations to protect crops against common bean rust could reduce or eliminate the heavy dependence on fungicides while simultaneously lowering production costs and