positive correlation with stomata size and a negative correlation with stomata density across a wide range of angiosperms ( Beaulieu et al., 2008 ). Stomata have proven useful anatomical characters to differentiate ploidy levels in woody plant species
Jason D. Lattier, Hsuan Chen, and Ryan N. Contreras
Liu XiaoYing, Guo ShiRong, Xu ZhiGang, Jiao XueLei, and Takafumi Tezuka
of leaves, ultrastructure of chloroplasts, palisade/spongy tissue, and stomata of cherry tomato leaves. Materials and Methods Plant materials and culture conditions. Seedlings of cherry tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) (provided by Taiwan Farmers
Xiaohui Lin, Hongbo Li, Shenggen He, Zhenpei Pang, Shuqin Lin, and Hongmei Li
flowers, including carnations, are the result of stomatal water loss that gradually exceeds the rate of water uptake through the xylem vessels in the cut-stem ends ( Mattos et al., 2017 ; van Doorn, 2012 ). The stomata of higher plants occur mainly on the
Kathryn Homa, William P. Barney, Daniel L. Ward, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon
morphological characteristics such as stomata density and leaf curvature influence infection of P. belbahrii in different Ocimum species, and if so, could be effective visual markers for screening in plant breeding. The large morphological variations in the
which was measured in 2016 only. Stomata and chloroplast counts. For stomatal measurements, the top-most fully expanded healthy leaf from each plant in three full-sibling H . macrophylla families (n = 72 plants) was collected between 14 and 18 Sept
Susan M. Stieve and Dennis P. Stimart
Eighteen commercially used white Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) inbreds, a hybrid of Inbred 1 × Inbred 18 (Hybrid 1) and an F2 population (F2) of Hybrid 1 were evaluated for stomatal size and density and transpiration rate to determine their affect on postharvest longevity. Stems of each genotype were cut to 40 cm, placed in distilled water and discarded when 50% of florets wilted or browned. Postharvest longevity of inbreds ranged from 3.7 to 12.9 days; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 3.0 and 9.1 days postharvest, respectively. Leaf impressions showed less than 3% of stomata were found on the adaxial leaf surface. Inbred abaxial stomatal densities ranged from 128.2 to 300.7 stomata mm-2; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 155 and 197 stomata mm-2, respectively. Transpiration measurments on leaves of stems 24 hr after cutting were made with a LI-COR 1600 Steady State Porometer. Statistical analysis showed inbreds were significantly different based on postharvest longevity, stomatal size and density and transpiration of cut stems.
Stefanie Peschel and Moritz Knoche
focused on CM characteristics such as the CM and wax mass, the (elastic) strain of the CM, the densities of stomata and of microcracks in the exocarp, and the permeability of the exocarp to water transport in transpiration and in osmotic water uptake
M. Capellades, R. Fontarnau, C. Carulla, and P. Debergh
The surface structure of rose (Rosa multiflora L. cv. Montse) leaves formed in vitro under several environmental conditions (light level, relative humidity) and with various growth regulator treatments was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The epidermis from leaves developed in cultures grown under a higher light level and a lower relative humidity (80 μmol·s-1·m-2 and 75% RH) than the conditions used in commercial laboratories (25 μmol·s-1·m-2 and 100% RH) showed anatomical modifications of the epicuticular wax, stomata, and epidermal cells similar to that of greenhouse-grown plant leaves. These results indicate that cultured plantlets can resemble greenhouse-grown plants under modified environmental conditions. In vitro pretreatment will reduce transplant losses and shorten the acclimatization period in the greenhouse.
Atilla B. Goknur and Theodore W. Tibbitts
The magnitude of dark opening of stomata on leaves of Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was studied to determine if this opening was related to the high sensitivity of these plants to air pollutants. Stomatal opening was studied over diurnal periods both in the field and in controlled environments. In both environments, stomatal conductance decreased rapidly at the initiation of dark to 0.1 cm·s-1 but then increased to 0.2 cm·s-1 over the dark period. However conductance was always less in the dark than in the light (0.3 to 0.9 cm·s-1). During the early part of the dark period, stomatal conductance in controlled environments was not as great as in the field, but conductance was similar in both environments over the latter part of the dark period. Cultivars Norchip and Kennebec had smaller conductances during the first hours of the dark than Haig or Katahdin, and all cultivars increased in conductance over the dark period. `Haig' showed slightly higher conductance than the other three during the last 4 hours of the dark period. Injury to `Haig' from 3-hour fumigations with sulfur dioxide (SO2) or ozone (O3) demonstrated that exposures during the day generally produced more injury than during the night, although exposures with SO2 during the last 3 hours of the light period produced similar injury to exposures at the end of the dark period. Thus, although partial opening during the dark may be permitting some pollution injury, it is concluded that previous published reports of similar opening of stomata on Irish potatoes during the light and dark periods, and equal or greater pollution injury during the dark compared with the light period, were not substantiated and apparently resulted from procedural artifacts.
Kourosh Vahdati, Zeinab Maleki Asayesh, Sasan Aliniaeifard, and Charles Leslie
., 1998 ). Long-term exposure to high RH decreases the closing ability of stomata because of low foliar abscisic acid (ABA) levels (stomatal malfunctioning). As a result, the capacity of leaves to control water loss decreases when plants are exposed to