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Ying Yang, Xian-Ge Hu, Bingsong Zheng, Yue Li, Tongli Wang, Anket Sharma, Huwei Yuan, and Jian-Feng Mao

nucleotides (nt) in length, which regulate target gene expression via the RNA interference pathway at translational repression or posttranscriptional degradation stage ( Lagos-Quintana et al., 2001 ). The important miRNA roles have been discovered in

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Whitney D. Phillips, Thomas G. Ranney, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas A. Eaker

unreduced gametes ( Ramsey and Schemske, 1998 ; Rounsaville et al., 2011 ). Flow cytometric screening of seeds and/or seedlings can often elucidate these reproductive pathways ( Eeckhaut et al., 2005 ; Matzk et al., 2000 ). Diploid plants, with standard

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Irene E. Palmer, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, and Richard E. Bir

pathways and occurrence of apomixis would provide valuable information for both breeding and commercial propagation of Rudbeckia . The objectives of this research were to determine ploidy levels and relative DNA contents of selected species and cultivars

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

; Ramsey and Schemske, 1998 ; Sears, 1953 ). Determination of 2C genome size of progeny from triploid parents can elucidate the reproductive pathway by which seedlings originated ( Doležel and Bartos, 2005 ). Development of new triploid M. sinensis may

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Kai-Xiang Li, Kai Liu, Yingying Chen, Xiaolu Huang, Wenhui Liang, Baocai Li, Yingbai Shen, and Haiying Liang

et al., 2020 ; Gao et al., 2020 ; Shen et al., 2020 ). Therefore, there is substantial interest in understanding the flavonoid metabolism. Flavonoids are synthesized through a complex pathway that has largely been found in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Hening Hu and Gary A. Couvillon

Abbreviations: NADP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; ppp, pentose phosphate pathway; TU, thiouria. A contribution of the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Athens. This research was supported by state and Hatch

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Zejin Zhang, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, and Rongfu Gao

The photosynthetic pathways of C3, C4, and CAM are known to have different photosynthetic properties ( Larcher, 1995 ; Nobel, 1991 ). Although the dry matter accumulation rate of CAM plants is lower than that of C3 and C4 plants, CAM plants have

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Kang-Di Hu, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Jun Tang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jing-Yu Deng, Si-Yuan Liu, Shang-Jun Zhao, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, and Hua Zhang

family modulates metabolic pathways involved in fruit ripening and senescence, chlorophyll degradation, fruit softening, and changes in aromas ( De Boer et al., 2011 ; Licausi et al., 2013 ; Qi et al., 2011 ). Because ethylene is the key phytohormone

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Marko Maras, Jelka Šuštar-Vozlič, Wolfgang Kainz, and Vladimir Meglič

genetic diversity of local cultivars of P. vulgaris are of fundamental importance, both for management of genetic resources and improvement of our understanding of the pathways of dissemination and the evolution of this species in Europe ( Angioi et al

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Yu Bai, Ying Zhou, Xiaoqing Tang, Yu Wang, Fangquan Wang, and Jie Yang

transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development ( Moon et al., 2005 ; Parcy, 2005 ). The genes involved in flowering control have been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana and have been integrated into multiple flowering pathways, including