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Haishan An, Feixiong Luo, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, and Zhenhai Han

depth) impact the reproductive and vegetative growth of apple trees ( Yao et al., 2006 ). Detailed knowledge about fine root production, mortality, and spatial distribution of dwarfing rootstocks is currently insufficient to understand the dwarfing

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

concentrations of GA, resulting in dwarf phenotypes for both monocot and dicot plants; in turn, GA applications promote growth elongation ( Lohr et al., 2014 ). In the GA signal pathway, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) acts as the GA receptor, can combine

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Patrick E. McCullough, Ted Whitwell, Lambert B. McCarty, and Haibo Liu

only tolerate long-term mowing heights 4.8 mm or greater, which produce inferior playing surfaces compared with creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) greens ( Beard, 1973 ; Foy, 1991 ). Dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars are improved selections

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Ben van Hooijdonk, David Woolley, Ian Warrington, and Stuart Tustin

Elucidating how dwarfing apple rootstocks modify scion architecture and the precise time after propagation when this first starts is essential to identify clearly those processes that are the first physiological causes of rootstock-induced scion

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Caihong Wang, Yike Tian, Emily J. Buck, Susan E. Gardiner, Hongyi Dai, and Yanli Jia

Pears are cultivated commercially in more than 50 temperate countries across the world. Their current mode of cultivation is one of intense fruit production, similar to that of apple. In the last century, many dwarfing apple rootstocks and dwarf

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S.L. Noffsinger, A.D. Draper, and C.L. Gupton

Although southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.) is replacing rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei L.) blueberry, rabbiteye will continue to be grown on marginal soils of the southeastern United States. Dwarfism or short, compact growth habit is a trait that could be used to reduce labor costs in rabbiteye blueberry production. Parental backgrounds, and flowering and fruit traits were studied in seven Mississippi (MS) and five Georgia (T) selections. Six of the MS selections are available for propagation and bloom late enough that cold damage should not be a problem. Four (MS63, MS454, MS546, MS891) of the six have acceptable fruit quality and will be used in breeding. Ethel and MS134 were the only known dwarf ancestors, with Ethel, Myers, Black Giant, and Tifblue (Ethel × Clara) dominating the parental background. Based on the variation in growth habit and ancestries, it would appear that Ethel has several genes for dwarfism and multiple allelic interactions are involved, similar to what Garvey and Lyrene found (1987). Future breeding will include crosses of MS63, MS454, MS546, and MS891 with germplasm outside of the common ancestors, to broaden the genetic base of the dwarf rabbiteyes.

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R.L. Rusholme Pilcher, J-M. Celton, S.E. Gardiner, and D.S. Tustin

are capable of fruiting earlier and producing greater yields are required. Dwarfing rootstocks that dramatically reduce the size of the grafted scion and that have also been reported to induce a higher proportion of buds to flower ( Atkinson and Else

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Danise Coon, Derek W. Barchenger, and Paul W. Bosland

ornamental pepper cultivars currently available need to be pinched or sprayed with a uniconazole foliar application to achieve a dwarf or semidwarf plant habit ( Starman, 1993 ). Dwarf and semidwarf plants are generally recognized as being smaller than normal

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

Dwarf Burford’ holly (synonyms: ‘Burfordii Nana’ and ‘Burfordii Compacta’) was first discovered in 1947 among vegetatively propagated hollies ( Galle, 1997 ) and has historically been one of the major holly cultivars in ornamental nursery

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Shaoyun Lu, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, Zhenfei Guo, and Bingru Huang

turfgrasses with alterations in various morphological traits. The most frequent mutant character from the irradiated plants is dwarfism. Gamma irradiation has been used to develop the dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars TifEagle, Tift 94, and Tifway II ( Burton