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Sridhar Polavarapu

A common practice in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) culture is to use combinations of insecticides and fungicides to reduce the number and cost of pesticide applications. In response to apparent phytotoxicity observed in commercial fields that were treated with combinations of diazinon and captan formulations, phytotoxicity of two formulations of diazinon (Diazinon AG600 and Diazinon 50W) and captan (Captan 80WP and Captec 4L) was investigated on highbush blueberries during 1997 and 1998. Phytotoxicity injury similar to injury observed in commercial fields was reproduced in treatments with diazinon and captan mixtures in all experiments. The Diazinon AG600 and Captec 4L mixture was the most severe and caused significantly more phytotoxic-ity to fruit and leaves than individual treatments of Diazinon AG600, Captec 4L or untreated control. Separation of diazinon and captan applications by 8 h significantly reduced phytotoxicity compared to mixture treatments. Injured fruit and leaves recovered over time and most treatments showed only a mild injury at the time of harvest. Phytotoxicity on fruit and leaves caused by Diazinon AG600 and Captec 4L mixture was significantly affected by application date with the earliest application causing the greatest injury. These data indicate that diazinon and captan mixtures cause phytotoxicity on highbush blueberries and therefore the two should not be applied in combination.

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Barbara L. Goulart, Philip E. Hammer, Kathleen B. Evensen, Wojciech Janisiewicz, and Fumiomi Takeda

The effects of preharvest applications of pyrrolnitrin (a biologically derived fungicide) on postharvest longevity of `Bristol' black raspberry (Rubus occidentals L.) and `Heritage' red raspberry [R. idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim] were evaluated at two storage temperatures. Preharvest fungicide treatments were 200 mg pyrrolnitrin/liter, a standard fungicide treatment (captan + benomyl or iprodione) or a distilled water control applied 1 day before first harvest. Black raspberries were stored at 18 or 0 ± lC in air or 20% CO2. Red raspberries were stored at the same temperatures in air only. Pyrrolnitrin-treated berries often had less gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr.) in storage than the control but more than berries treated with the standard fungicides. Storage in a modified atmosphere of 20% CO2 greatly improved postharvest quality of black raspberries at both storage temperatures by reducing gray mold development. The combination of standard fungicide or pyrrolnitrin, high CO2, and low temperature resulted in more than 2 weeks of storage with less than 5% disease on black raspberries; however, discoloration limited marketability after≈ 8 days under these conditions. Chemical names used: 3-chloro-4-(2'-nitro-3'-chlorophenyl) -pyrrole (pyrrolnitrin); N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-l12-dicarboximide (captan); methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl) -2-benzimidazolecarbamate) (benomyl); 3-(3,5 -dichlorophenyl) -N-(l-methylethyl -2,4-dioxo-l-imi-dazolidinecarboxamide (Rovral, iprodione).

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B.R. Bondada, C.E. Sams, and D.E Deyton

Oil sprays increase the phytotoxicity of captan to apple foliage. The purpose of this study was to determine if oils increase the penetration of captan through leaf cuticles. Enzymatically isolated apple leaf cuticles were used as a model system to study captan penetration. A bioassay was developed using the inhibition of growth of Penicillium cyclopium on potato-dextrose agar as a measure of captan penetration through the cuticle. Captan penetrated through both surfaces, but significantly more penetrated through the abaxial cuticles than the adaxial cuticles. Increasing the captan concentration increased the captan penetration through the abaxial cuticle in a linear relationship. Captan penetration through the cuticle was increased by 63% when cuticles were treated with captan plus 1% emulsified soybean oil. Abaxial cuticles treated with captan plus emulsified soybean oil or with captan plus SunSpray Ultra-Fine oil had >125% greater captan penetration than cuticles treated with only captan. Cuticles treated with captan plus dormant oil (petroleum oil) had 220% more captan penetration than the captan only treatment.

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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

applying fungicides before autumn rains ( Pscheidt and Ocamb, 2017 ). Zinc [Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) code M03], captan (FRAC code M04), and copper-based products (FRAC code M01) are the common fungicides applied in PNW cider apple

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Aimin Liu, Joyce G. Latimer, and Robert E. Wilkinson

The influence of two fungicides—captan and thiram—on growth and 45Ca absorption by roots of `Starbrite' watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] seedlings was investigated. Unilateral application of Ca+2 and Al in agar induced curvature in roots from untreated and pretreated seeds. In untreated seeds, PCMBS inhibited Ca+2- and Al-induced root curvature by 82% and 92%, respectively. In commercially pretreated seeds (captan + thiram), PCMBS inhibited Ca+2- but not Al-induced root curvature. Captan or thiram also inhibited Ca+2- or Al-induced root curvature, and the effects of captan and thiram on root curvature were additive. Serial concentration (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg·liter-1) tests indicated that captan inhibited 45Ca absorption the most at 100 mg·liter-1, whereas thiram inhibited 45Ca absorption the most at 0.01 mg·liter-1. The effects of captan and thiram on 45Ca absorption were statistically additive. Thiram seemed to influence Ca+2 uptake by affecting exofacial sulfhydryl groups (a mode of action similar to that of PCMBS). DTT reversed the inhibitory effect of thiram on 45Ca absorption by 34% but did not reverse the effect of captan. A field test showed that acidic soil (pH 4.55) reduced leaf number; leaf, stem, shoot, and whole-plant dry weights; and stem length of 15-day-old seedlings. Although there was no difference in root dry weights or root: shoot ratios of plants from pretreated and untreated seeds planted in soil at pH 6.26, planting commercially pretreated seeds in acidic soil produced plants with greater root dry weights and root: shoot dry weight ratios than those from untreated seeds. Seedlings showed a greater response to seed treatment in early growth stages. Captan and thiram may have influenced growth characteristics by inhibiting Al uptake of seedlings planted in acidic soil. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the influence of the fungicides captan and thiram on mineral ion uptake in roots. Chemical names used: p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (captan), tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram).

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John J. Haydu and Daniel E. Legard

The control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot was evaluated during 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. Weekly applications of captan and thiram were examined at two or three different rates, respectively. Iprodione applications were combined with the captan and thiram treatments and applied alone for two peak bloom periods. Strawberry fruit were harvested and graded twice weekly for marketable yield and preharvest incidence of Botrytis fruit rot. For postharvest evaluations, fruit from four harvests were selected and stored at 4 °C, and Botrytis fruit rot incidence was recorded over 14 days of storage. Fungicide treatments reduced the incidence of preharvest Botrytis fruit rot and increased marketable yield. Marketable yield data were then used to extrapolate production into net economic returns per hectare. In 1995-96, net returns per hectare ranged from a low of $16,008 in the control treatment to a high of $20,728 for captan. In 1996-97, net returns ranged from a low of $3,655 per hectare for the control to a high of $17,985 for captan + iprodione. In 1997-98, net returns varied from -$641 per hectare for iprodione to a high of $24,215 for captan. Over the experiment's 3-year period, net returns averaged a low of $4,172 for iprodione alone to $19,074 for captan. The study concluded that, at roughly $1,000 per season, fungicide treatments represent a minor proportion of total costs, yet have large impacts on strawberry production profits.

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T.G. Beckman, P.L. Pusey, and P.F. Bertrand

Peach tree fungal gummosis caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea [(Moug.:Fr.) Cos & de Not.] is widespread throughout the southeastern United States. Until recently, its economic impact on peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] has been impossible to estimate, since no effective controls were known. Significant, though not total, suppression of gummosis on `Summergold' peach trees was achieved with an intensive 5-year spray program with captafol. Captan was far less effective than captafol. Both trunk diameter and fruit yield were negatively correlated with disease severity. After eight growing seasons, trees treated with captafol were 18% larger than the untreated trees. Yield of mature captafol-treated trees was 40% to 60% high er than that of untreated ones. Following termination of the spray program after 5 years, disease severity gradually increased on both captafol- and captan-treated trees. However, through eight growing seasons, disease severity was significantly lower on captafol-treated trees. This study demonstrates that peach tree fungal gummosis significantly depresses tree growth and fruit yield on susceptible peach cultivars.

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D.A. Rosenberger, T.L. Robinson, J.R. Schupp, C.A. Engle-Ahlers, and F.W. Meyer

Effects of three sterol-demethylation inhibiting (DMI) fungicides and a contact fungicide were compared over two years at each of two locations to determine if fungicide treatments had differential effects on productivity, fruit size and shape, or gross returns for `Empire' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). Treatments were applied four to five times per year during the primary apple scab season. Effects of treatments were assessed by comparing fruit set efficiencies, number of fruit per tree, total harvested fruit weight, and fruit length: diameter ratios at harvest. No significant differences were noted among individual treatments in any of the four trials. However, when treatments were contrasted by grouping individual treatments, significantly larger fruit size was noted for triflumizole treatments vs. combined fenarimol and myclobutanil treatments in one of the four trials and for captan or mancozeb compared to fenarimol and myclobutanil treatments in two trials. None of the DMI fungicides compared in these trials had any consistent adverse affect on fruit size, total yield, or estimated gross return per hectare. We conclude that the plant growth regulator effects of DMI fungicides are inconsistent and are unlikely to have significant economic impact on commercial apple production.

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Kathryn C. Taylor and Parshall B. Bush

To discern how the packing process influences pesticide residue loads on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit; postharvest, post hydrocooled, and post brushed fruit were assessed for levels of several pesticides. The packing house process reduced pesticide residue levels on fresh peaches to levels that were generally below detection limits of our assays in 1998. Carbaryl and captan residues from field packed fruit were 32.2× and 21.9×, respectively, of that found in the peel of fruit processed in the packing house in 1998. Carbaryl levels were not reduced by hydrocooling but postharvest brushing reduced pesticide residues up to 94% in fruit peel. Across processing operations and cultivars assessed in 1999, hydrocooling, hydrocooling plus brushing, and brushing alone removed 37%, 62%, and 53%, respectively, of the encapsulated methyl parathion residues from fruit peel. Hydrocooling had the greatest impact on phosmet removal from peel, reducing levels by 72.5%. After hydrocooling, phosmet was 5.7× following brushing in one-half of the subsequent samples. This increase occurred at all three farms, suggesting that periodic cleaning of brushes may be necessary to prevent later contamination of peach peel with pesticides. In the only example in which propiconazole residue remained on peaches at picking, it was removed most effectively (69%) by the brushing operation. Nearly 31% of the propiconazole was removed in the hydrocooler. The packing process before shipment to retail outlets was generally effective in the removal of pesticides that may be present on peel at the time of harvest. Assessment of pesticide residue levels in peach flesh was uniformly below the levels of detection in our assays, suggesting that the classes of pesticide analyzed in peaches were not transepidermal.

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J.R. Schupp, T.L. Robinson, W.P. Cowgill Jr., and J.M. Compton

Three experiments were conducted on `Empire' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) to evaluate the effects of hard water, calcium chloride (CaCl2), water conditioners, surfactants, and captan fungicide on the growth reduction and fruit cracking caused by prohexadione-calcium (PC). Two applications of 63 mg·L-1 PC provided season-long growth control in two studies. Adding a water conditioner to PC reduced shoot growth more than an application of PC in hard or soft water in one New York study. Ammonium sulfate (AMS) and Choice were equally effective water conditioners. PC provided no growth control of water sprouts and had no effect on fruit set or yield. PC applied at 250 mg·L-1 reduced fruit size. `Empire' fruit cracking and corking was severe, despite the use of only 63 mg·L-1 PC in two of the three experiments. This damage was exacerbated by the addition of a water conditioner, however AMS applied with a surfactant but without PC had little or no effect on either the severity or extent of fruit injury. In a third experiment, the addition of surfactants, CaCl2, or captan to 250 mg·L-1 PC plus a water conditioner had no effect on the severity of fruit damage. Fruit cracking caused by PC increased preharvest drop in two of three experiments, and increased postharvest rot in the Geneva, N.Y., experiment where fruit were stored prior to grading. Application of PC plus a water conditioner reduced estimated gross return per hectare for `Empire. We conclude that the fruit injury is caused by the formulated PC product itself under certain environmental conditions, and that this product should not be used on `Empire. Chemical name used: calcium 3-oxido-4-proprionyl-5-oxo-3-cyclohexine-carboxylate [prohexadione-calcium (PC)].