Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the primary anthocyanin in red `Tsugaru' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The concentration of cyanidin 3-galactoside in the skin decreased from 20 to 62 days after full bloom (DAFB), then increased rapidly after 104 DAFB. Small amounts of cyanidin 3-arabinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside were detected at 122 and 133 DAFB (harvest). The expression of five anthocyanin biosynthetic genes of chalcone synthase (MdCHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MdF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (pDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (MdANS), and UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (pUFGluT) was examined in the skin of red and nonred apples. In general, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in red apples was strong in juvenile and ripening stages. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS was observed before ripening stage when anthocyanin was not detected. In contrast, the expression of pUFGluT was detected in the development stage only when anthocyanin was detected. However, the expression of all five genes was observed at 20 DAFB in fruit bagged after fertilization, and anthocyanin was not detected. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS, excluding pUFGluT, was detected at 98 DAFB in fruit bagged after 30 DAFB, and anthocyanin was not detected. These results suggest that pUFGluT may be closely related to the anthocyanin expression in apple skin at the ripening stage.
Satoru Kondo, Kentaro Hiraoka, Shozo Kobayashi, Chikako Honda, and Norihiko Terahara
Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Jayasankar Subramanian
and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis Plant Cell 7 1071 1083 Honda, C. Kotoda, N. Wada, M. Kondo, S. Kobayashi, S. Soejima, J. Zhang, Z. Tsuda, T. Moriguchi, T. 2002 Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes are coordinately expressed during red coloration
Paola S. Cotroneo, Maria P. Russo, Manuela Ciuni, Giuseppe Reforgiato Recupero, and Angela R. Lo Piero
Genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), some of the enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, were assayed in two different experiments using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, in order to test their transcription levels in the flesh of blood and common orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] fruit, and to investigate their role in anthocyanin accumulation in the same tissue. The first experiment compared a blood orange and a common orange cultivar during seven different fruit maturation stages. This was followed by the test of 11 different genotypes at the end of the winter season. Data collected from the first experiment, over the blood orange cultivar, were statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results show that CHS, ANS, and UFGT mRNA transcripts are up- and co-regulated in the blood orange cultivar, whereas they are down-regulated in the common orange cultivar. There is evidence of correspondence between the target genes expression level and the content of the pigment assessed. The second test confirms this correlation and shows that enzyme synthesis levels and pigment accumulation, in plants grown under the same environmental conditions, are dependent on the differences occurring among the genotypes tested. These results suggest that the absence of pigment in the common orange cultivars may be caused by the lack of induction on the structural genes expression. This is the first report on the characterization of the relationships between biosynthetic genes expression and fruit flesh anthocyanin content in blood oranges.
The biosynthetic pathway for anthocyanins has been studied using genetic, biochemical and molecular biological tools. In the past decade, the core pathway genes have been cloned; a number of genes which act to modify anthocyanin structure have been cloned more recently. The first results in color modification have been reduced flower color intensity using gene suppression methods. In particular, we have utilized chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) genes and sense suppression in our experimental system, Petunia hybrida, and in the commercial crops, chrysan-themum (Dendranthema morifolium) and rose (Rosa hybrida). In petunia a range of new phenotypes was obtained; genetic stability of suppressed pheno-types will be described. In chrysanthemum a white-flowering derivative of a pink-flowering variety will be described. In rose uniform, partial reduction in pigment intensity throughout the flower was observed in over a dozen trans-genie derivatives of a red-flowering variety.
Rasika G. Mudalige-Jayawickrama, Michele M. Champagne, A. David Hieber, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle
Two full-length cDNA clones, Den-CHS-4 and Den-DFR-1, encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were obtained from flower bud RNA of a lavender cyanidin-accumulating Dendrobium Sw. hybrid using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Northern analyses indicated that both genes are expressed in all developmental stages of buds, with highest expression in the medium-sized buds. RT-PCR analyses showed that DFR expression was confined to floral tissue while CHS was expressed in floral and vegetative tissues but not in pseudobulbs. The nucleotide sequence of a DFR clone isolated from a pale orange pelargonidin-accumulating Dendrobium hybrid was exactly the same as Den-DFR-1, ruling out the substrate specificity of DFR as a possible cause of the color difference.
Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao
of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and TFs were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) with SYBR Green qPCR Mix (Takara, Japan) and the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time PCR System (BIO-RAD, Houston, TX), according to the manufacturer’s instructions
Kazuya Koyama and Nami Goto-Yamamoto
.D. 2007 Transcriptional control of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in extreme phenotypes for berry pigmentation of naturally occurring grapevines BMC Plant Biol. 7 46 Castellarin, S.D. Pfeiffer, A. Sivilotti, P
Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova, and John R. Stommel
, J.H. Yin, Y.X. Zhang, H.X. Chai, W.G. Gong, Z.H. 2015 VIGS approach reveals the modulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by CaMYB in chili pepper leaves Front. Plant Sci. 6 500 Zhang, Y. Hu, Z. Chu, G. Huang, C. Tian, S. Zhao, Z. Chen, G. 2014
Chen-Yi Hung, Cindy B.S. Tong, and John R. Murray
The color of red potatoes is due to an accumulation of anthocyanins in periderm tissues. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of several factors on tuber redness. Using the red tuber-producing S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum cultivar Norland, we observed that chroma (intensity of redness) and anthocyanin content of greenhouse-grown tubers decreased as tuber weight increased. There was a slight or no increase in hue (tint). We used HPLC to determine that pelargonidin and peonidin are the major anthocyanidins (aglycones of anthocyanins) in tuber periderm. The ratio of pelargonidin to peonidin increased as tuber weight increased up to 25 g fresh weight. The decrease in chroma was not due to an increase in cell sap pH; we observed a decrease in cellular pH as tuber weight increased. Controlled-atmosphere storage had no effect on tuber chroma or anthocyanin content compared to air storage. Methyl jasmonate, sucrose, or light treatment did not increase anthocyanin accumulation. Tubers exposed to light had less anthocyanin than those kept in the dark. We are examining the developmental expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, as well as the effect of maize transcription factors on anthocyanin synthesis, in tuber periderm.