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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, Luis R. Valenzuela-Estrada, and David R. Bryla

. Labor hours required to maintain the three weed management treatments were recorded. Irrigation. Each treatment was irrigated with a single lateral of drip tubing (UNIRAM; Netafim USA, Fresno, CA). The tubing had pressure-compensating emitters (1.9 L

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Merve Şekerli, Golnaz Komaei Koma, Jacob W. Snelling, and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

, 2001 ), and Johnson et al. (1994 , 1996 ). The cycle begins when stromata in cankers become wet in the spring, and ascospores are disseminated by wind and rain. These spores infect young shoots and breaking buds ( Pscheidt, 2010 ). Cankers with

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Julie Graham, Mary Woodhead, Kay Smith, Joanne Russell, Bruce Marshall, Gavin Ramsay, and Geoff Squire

, may lead to erosion of genetic diversity and increased interpopulation genetic divergence ( Young et al., 1996 ), which, in the long term, may affect the viability of populations, reducing their ability to respond to changing selection pressures

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Xiaohe Song and Zhanao Deng

high PM disease pressure in West Central Florida. Seeds of these gerberas were donated by Sunshine State Carnations, Inc. (Hobe Sound, FL), and the parental plants of these gerbera seeds had been naturally “screened” under mildew disease pressure at the

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, James J. Polashock, Allan W. Stretch, and Matthew Kramer

germination of pseudosclerotia that form apothecia ( Batra, 1983 ). The ascospores produced by the apothecia are wind-dispersed to young vegetative blueberry tissues during and shortly after bud break ( Cox and Scherm, 2001 ). Conidia, produced on the blighted

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Qingren Wang, Waldemar Klassen, Edward A. Evans, Yungcong Li, and Merlyn Codallo

were installed on the surface of each bed and covered with the same plastic mulch as in the MC33 treatment for the respective treatments. The drip tapes were left on top of the organic mulch and fastened with stakes to prevent wind from displacing these

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Christopher Vincent, Diane Rowland, and Bruce Schaffer

and Crane, 2010 ). This has led to increasing pressure to reduce horticultural water use ( Migliaccio et al., 2006 ). Thus, PA may be useful as a water-conserving irrigation practice. A PA treatment in papaya was previously developed by targeting a

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Sarah J. Pethybridge, Niloofar Vaghefi, and Julie R. Kikkert

produces conidiospores that are dispersed short distances by wind, rain, or both ( Franc, 2010 ). However, the mechanisms by which the fungus is dispersed between fields remain elusive as the sexual form of C. beticola has not been identified. Cercospora

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Jaroslav Ďurkovič, František Kačík, Miroslava Mamoňová, Monika Kardošová, Roman Longauer, and Jana Krajňáková

, glucopyranose units ranging in number from 305 to 15,300 ( Fengel and Wegener, 2003 ) are polymerized to form cellulose chains. This biopolymer imparts tensile strength to the wall to resist turgor pressure and to allow for growth habit. Lignins also impart

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou, and Nikolaos Ntoulas

flowering from June to August. It withstands temperature extremes and drought well, whereas its strong fibrous root system provides adequate anchorage to resist wind drifts. Based on these characteristics, D. fruticosus sub. fruticosus seems to be a