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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

, 2012 ). The objective of this study was to determine if GB seed priming has the potential to improve turfgrass tolerance of drought, salinity, and suboptimal temperatures. Materials and Methods Plant materials and seed priming. Six turfgrass species

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Victoria H. Wallace, Candace Bartholomew, and Julie H. Campbell

has proved to be a challenge for school grounds managers. As noted by Miller and Henderson (2012) , a decrease in pesticide use can make it difficult to control weeds, insects, and diseases in turfgrass. To provide guidance to school grounds managers

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Ty A. McClellan, Roch E. Gaussoin, Robert C. Shearman, Charles S. Wortmann, Martha Mamo, Garald L. Horst, and David B. Marx

turfgrass use, maintenance, and performance. Inadequate or excessive soil nutrient levels can lead to problems in turfgrass health, vigor, and quality ( Beard, 1973 ; Turner and Hummel, 1992 ). Putting greens comprise ≈1.6% of the total golf course area

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Ruiqin Bai and Deying Li

Turfgrass management today involves the use of many sophisticated types of mechanical equipments that are usually powered by petroleum fuels and controlled by hydraulic fluids. Petroleum-based spills occur ( Johns and Beard, 1979 ) primarily because

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Jin-wei Zhang, Yi-xue Liu, Jin-ping Yu, Wei Zhang, Ya-qiong Xie, and Ning-ning Ge

( Shan et al., 2013 ). A current challenge in turfgrass development involves turfgrass management—although people pay considerable attention to the establishment of turfgrass areas, they pay less to their subsequent management. This inattentiveness has

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L.E. Trenholm, R.N. Carrow, and R.R. Duncan

1 Assistant Professor. E-mail address: Ltrenholm@mail.ifas.ufl.edu 2 Professor. We gratefully acknowledge support from the U.S. Golf Association, the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, the Georgia Turfgrass Foundation Trust

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Darren W. Lycan and Stephen E. Hart

Previous research has demonstrated that bispyribac-sodium can selectively control established annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Annual bluegrass is also a problematic weed in other cool-season turfgrass species. However, the relative tolerance of other cool-season turfgrass species to bispyribac is not known. Field experiments were conducted at Adelphia, N.J., in 2002 and 2003 to gain understanding of the phytotoxic effects that bispyribac may have on kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.), and chewings fine fescue (Festuca rubra L. subsp. commutata Gaud.). Single applications of bispyribac at 37 to 296 g·ha–1 were applied to mature stands of each species on 11 June, 2002 and 10 June, 2003. Visual injury was evaluated and clippings were collected 35 and 70 days after treatment (DAT). Visual injury at 35 DAT increased as bispyribac rate increased. Kentucky bluegrass was least tolerant to bispyribac with up to 28% injury when applied at 296 g·ha–1. Injury on other species did not exceed 20%. Initial injury on perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and chewings fine fescue was primarily in the form of chlorosis, while kentucky bluegrass exhibited more severe stunting and thinning symptoms. Bispyribac at rates from 74 to 296 g·ha–1 reduced kentucky bluegrass clipping weights by 19% to 35%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control at 35 DAT in 2002. Initial visual injury on perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and chewings fine fescue dissipated to ≤5% by 70 DAT. However, recovery of kentucky bluegrass was less complete. These studies suggest that bispyribac-sodium has potential to severely injure kentucky bluegrass. Injury on perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and chewings fine fescue appears to be less severe and persistent; therefore, bispyribac can be used for weed control in these species. Chemical names used: 2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoic acid (bispyribac-sodium).

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Verónica De Luca, Diego Gómez de Barreda, Antonio Lidón, and Cristina Lull

environment ( European Union, 1991 , 2009 , respectively) may increase the use of biostimulants as replacements for many ingredients that are being rejected for use in turfgrass. However, the term “biostimulant” is wide and loosely defined ( Mueller and

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Yingmei Ma, and Emily Merewitz

Turfgrasses receive a high number of cultural inputs on a frequent basis for adequate performance and functionality. One of the inputs required for all turfgrass areas is frequent mowing. The most highly managed turfgrass areas, such as golf course

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, and Joe E. Toler

Creeping bentgrass [ Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.)], a C 3 plant, is widely used as a putting green turfgrass in cooler climate areas and the transition zone ( McCarty, 2005 ). However, as a result of seasonal temperature variation