Vermicomposting is a promising method of transforming unwanted and virtually unlimited supplies of organic wastes into usable substrates. In this process, the digestive tracts of certain earthworm species (e.g., Eisenia fetida) are used to stabilize organic wastes. The final product is an odorless peat-like substance, which has good structure, moisture-holding capacity, relatively large amounts of available nutrients, and microbial metabolites that may act as plant growth regulators. For these reasons, vermicompost has the potential to make a valuable contribution to soilless potting media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transplant quality and field performance of vegetable transplants grown in vermicompost. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants were grown in a commercial soilless mix including 0%, 10%, or 20% (v/v) worm-worked cattle manure. Growth of vegetable transplants was positively affected by addition of vermicompost, perhaps by altering the nutritional balance of the medium. Transplant quality was improved in peppers and eggplants while tomato transplant quality was slightly reduced. There were no significant differences in field performance.
Lindsay C. Paul and James D. Metzger
Orville M. Lindstrom
Leyland cypress [×Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.] plants were transplanted into the field monthly from Aug. 1989 through Mar. 1990, and laboratory cold-hardiness estimates of these transplants were obtained monthly for two winter seasons. Cold hardiness estimates obtained in Dec. 1989 and Jan. 1990 revealed that the Nov. and Dec. 1989 transplants were 6C less cold-hardy than those transplanted into the field earlier in the year. There was little difference in cold hardiness due to transplant date during Feb., Mar., and Apr. 1990. In the second year of the study, on the same transplants, cold hardiness varied among transplanting dates. In Dec. 1990 and Jan. 1991, those transplanted in Jan.-Mar. 1990 were up to 9C less cold-hardy than those transplanted earlier in the season. However, in Mar. and Apr. 1991, those transplanted in Jan.-Mar. 1990 were equally or more cold-hardy than those transplanted earlier in the season. Transplanting Leyland cypress into the field in August to November appears to be the best time to ensure development of cold hardiness in early winter, whereas January to March planting appears to promote greater cold hardiness in the spring months.
J. Roger Harris and Susan D. Day
landscape trees may result from uninformed nursery practices that leave structural roots too deeply buried when harvested, planting too deep at transplant, or placing fill over roots during site grading. Trees with deep structural roots are thought to be
Samuel Doty, Ryan W. Dickson, and Michael Evans
clay aggregate substrate to the bottom of the flood table. Seedlings are transplanted and grown directly in the substrate, which is periodically subirrigated with nutrient solution, similar to ebb-and-flood irrigation with container crop production. The
Courtney D. DeKalb, Brian A. Kahn, Bruce L. Dunn, Mark E. Payton, and Allen V. Barker
Soilless, peatmoss-based growing media are used commonly in vegetable transplant production ( Sterrett, 2001 ). Peatmoss-based media give consistent and reliable results in the horticulture industry ( Boodley and Sheldrake, 1982 ), but peatmoss is
Charles S. Vavrina, Stephen M. Olson, Phyllis R. Gilreath, and Mary L. Lamberts
`Agriset', `All Star', and `Colonial' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants set to a depth of the first true leaf and `Cobia' transplants set to a depth of the cotyledon leaves yielded more fruit at first harvest than plants set to the top of the rootball (root–shoot interface). The increase in fruit count was predominantly in the extra-large category. More red fruit at first harvest suggested that deeper planting hastens tomato maturity. The impact of planting depth diminished with successive harvests, indicating the response to be primarily a first-harvest phenomenon in tomato.
Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Hamada M. Abdelrahman, Claudio Cocozza, Teodoro Miano, Francesco Montesano, and Angelo Parente
growing media for transplant production ( Bernal-Vicente et al., 2008 ; Bustamante et al., 2008 ; Ribeiro et al., 2007 ; Sánchez-Monedero et al., 2004 ). Through this oxidative transformation of organic wastes, nutrients are retained onto humic
Bridget K. Behe, Patricia Huddleston, and Lynnell Sage
potential customers to attract them to the products offered by horticultural professionals. Do younger potential consumers view the branded herb and vegetable transplants in the same way as Baby Boomers? Literature Review Branding. A brand, as defined by the
Tina Gray Teague
Four week old watermelon (cv. Royal Sweet) transplants were obtained from long distance (FL) and local (AR) commercial transplant growers and set in plots in a commercial watermelon field near Leachville AR. Transplants (plugs) from AR (Burton's Inc., Tupelo, AR) were grown in inverted pyramid, Todd Flats (model 100A; 5/8″ length X 1/2″ width X 3″ height) (Speedling Inc., Sun City, FL). FL transplants (LaBelle Plant World, LaBelle, FL) were grown in 1.5″ square cells, 2″ deep. All transplants were delivered 15 April and set on 16 April. Transit time for local transplants was < 2 hrs, and plants were delivered in original flats. FL transplants were shipped on 14 April and were in transit ca. 28 hrs. They had been pulled from trays and were shipped in cardboard boxes. Plot size was 6 beds, 53.3m long with treatments arranged in a RCB with 4 replications. Bed spacing was 2.9m with between plant spacing of 1.5m. Data were subjected to ANOVA with mean separation by LSD.
Plots were harvested 3, 8, 15 and 22 July. Total number of fruit produced from plots planted with AR transplants was greater than FL treatment plots in the first 3 of 4 harvests; significantly higher total cumulative yield was observed with AR compared to FL transplants (45,115 and 35,172 kg ha-1, respectively). Increases in-yield and earliness resulted in an increase in gross profit of $1225 ha-1 for local transplants (based on national price data from that time period). No differences in average weights of fruit were observed for any harvests. Results indicate that Mid-South watermelon producers could benefit from utilizing locally grown transplants if plants are of comparable quality to those available from distant suppliers.
Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, David R. Bryla, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Richard P. Regan
Nursery practices for container-grown perennial plants attempt to optimize plant growth and appearance both in the containers and after transplanting in the landscape. Numerous factors influence plant performance after transplanting, including water