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J. Roger Harris and Susan D. Day

landscape trees may result from uninformed nursery practices that leave structural roots too deeply buried when harvested, planting too deep at transplant, or placing fill over roots during site grading. Trees with deep structural roots are thought to be

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Orville M. Lindstrom

Leyland cypress [×Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.] plants were transplanted into the field monthly from Aug. 1989 through Mar. 1990, and laboratory cold-hardiness estimates of these transplants were obtained monthly for two winter seasons. Cold hardiness estimates obtained in Dec. 1989 and Jan. 1990 revealed that the Nov. and Dec. 1989 transplants were 6C less cold-hardy than those transplanted into the field earlier in the year. There was little difference in cold hardiness due to transplant date during Feb., Mar., and Apr. 1990. In the second year of the study, on the same transplants, cold hardiness varied among transplanting dates. In Dec. 1990 and Jan. 1991, those transplanted in Jan.-Mar. 1990 were up to 9C less cold-hardy than those transplanted earlier in the season. However, in Mar. and Apr. 1991, those transplanted in Jan.-Mar. 1990 were equally or more cold-hardy than those transplanted earlier in the season. Transplanting Leyland cypress into the field in August to November appears to be the best time to ensure development of cold hardiness in early winter, whereas January to March planting appears to promote greater cold hardiness in the spring months.

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Katsumi Ohyama, Yoshitaka Omura, and Toyoki Kozai

Providing continuous light (24-h photoperiod) at a relatively low photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) is one possible way to reduce both initial and operational costs for lighting and cooling during transplant production with an artificial light. However, physiological disorders (i.e., chlorosis and necrosis) are often observed in several species under continuous light with a constant temperature. The objective of this study was to find an effective air-temperature regime under the continuous light to avoid such physiological disorders, and simultaneously enhance floral development, using tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.] as a model. The seedlings with fully expanded cotyledons were grown for 15 d at a PPF of 150 μmol·m–2·s–1, a relative humidity of 70%, and a CO2 concentration of about 380 μmol·mol–1 (atmospheric standard). Leaf chlorosis was observed when the air temperature was constant regardless of average air temperature (16, 22,or 28 °C). Neither leaf chlorosis nor necrosis was observed when the air temperatures were alternated [periods of high (28 °C) and low (16 °C) air temperatures of 16/8, 12/12, and 8/16 h·d–1]. Faster floral development was observed in the seedlings grown at lower average air temperatures. These results indicated that physiological disorders of tomato seedlings grown under continuous light could be avoided, and at the same time floral development could be enhanced, by lowering the average air temperature through modification of the periods of high and low air temperatures.

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Samuel Doty, Ryan W. Dickson, and Michael Evans

clay aggregate substrate to the bottom of the flood table. Seedlings are transplanted and grown directly in the substrate, which is periodically subirrigated with nutrient solution, similar to ebb-and-flood irrigation with container crop production. The

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Courtney D. DeKalb, Brian A. Kahn, Bruce L. Dunn, Mark E. Payton, and Allen V. Barker

Soilless, peatmoss-based growing media are used commonly in vegetable transplant production ( Sterrett, 2001 ). Peatmoss-based media give consistent and reliable results in the horticulture industry ( Boodley and Sheldrake, 1982 ), but peatmoss is

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Charles S. Vavrina, Stephen M. Olson, Phyllis R. Gilreath, and Mary L. Lamberts

`Agriset', `All Star', and `Colonial' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants set to a depth of the first true leaf and `Cobia' transplants set to a depth of the cotyledon leaves yielded more fruit at first harvest than plants set to the top of the rootball (root–shoot interface). The increase in fruit count was predominantly in the extra-large category. More red fruit at first harvest suggested that deeper planting hastens tomato maturity. The impact of planting depth diminished with successive harvests, indicating the response to be primarily a first-harvest phenomenon in tomato.

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Carlo Mininni, Pietro Santamaria, Hamada M. Abdelrahman, Claudio Cocozza, Teodoro Miano, Francesco Montesano, and Angelo Parente

growing media for transplant production ( Bernal-Vicente et al., 2008 ; Bustamante et al., 2008 ; Ribeiro et al., 2007 ; Sánchez-Monedero et al., 2004 ). Through this oxidative transformation of organic wastes, nutrients are retained onto humic

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia Huddleston, and Lynnell Sage

potential customers to attract them to the products offered by horticultural professionals. Do younger potential consumers view the branded herb and vegetable transplants in the same way as Baby Boomers? Literature Review Branding. A brand, as defined by the

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Tina Gray Teague

Four week old watermelon (cv. Royal Sweet) transplants were obtained from long distance (FL) and local (AR) commercial transplant growers and set in plots in a commercial watermelon field near Leachville AR. Transplants (plugs) from AR (Burton's Inc., Tupelo, AR) were grown in inverted pyramid, Todd Flats (model 100A; 5/8″ length X 1/2″ width X 3″ height) (Speedling Inc., Sun City, FL). FL transplants (LaBelle Plant World, LaBelle, FL) were grown in 1.5″ square cells, 2″ deep. All transplants were delivered 15 April and set on 16 April. Transit time for local transplants was < 2 hrs, and plants were delivered in original flats. FL transplants were shipped on 14 April and were in transit ca. 28 hrs. They had been pulled from trays and were shipped in cardboard boxes. Plot size was 6 beds, 53.3m long with treatments arranged in a RCB with 4 replications. Bed spacing was 2.9m with between plant spacing of 1.5m. Data were subjected to ANOVA with mean separation by LSD.

Plots were harvested 3, 8, 15 and 22 July. Total number of fruit produced from plots planted with AR transplants was greater than FL treatment plots in the first 3 of 4 harvests; significantly higher total cumulative yield was observed with AR compared to FL transplants (45,115 and 35,172 kg ha-1, respectively). Increases in-yield and earliness resulted in an increase in gross profit of $1225 ha-1 for local transplants (based on national price data from that time period). No differences in average weights of fruit were observed for any harvests. Results indicate that Mid-South watermelon producers could benefit from utilizing locally grown transplants if plants are of comparable quality to those available from distant suppliers.

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Elisha O. Gogo, Mwanarusi Saidi, Francis M. Itulya, Thibaud Martin, and Mathieu Ngouajio

significant amounts of minerals and fiber. In Kenya, tomatoes always are in high demand both for fresh consumption and processing ( Mungai et al., 2000 ). Tomato are established by direct seeding or from transplants ( Long and Cantliffe, 1975 ). However