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Martin P.N. Gent

was 24% higher in winter. This result suggests oxalate will be high when nitrate is high. There is little effect on yield or quality of hydroponic spinach produced at root-zone temperatures of 20, 24, or 28 °C in summer or 15, 20, or 25 °C in winter

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B.Z. Escalante and Alan R. Langille

`Katahdin' potato plants were grown under conditions that did not induce tuberization (noninducing conditions) and the foliage was sprayed with either a growth retardant (BAS-111) at 1000 mg·L-1 or distilled water. Other plants, grown under tuber-inducing conditions, received a foliar spray of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 100 mg·L-1 or distilled water. After 1 week, treatments were repeated. Two-node stem segments were excised from the apical, subapical, medial, and basal sections of each plant 72 hours after the second foliar treatment, disinfested, and inserted into flasks containing 50 mL of Murashige and Skoog medium (2% sucrose). After 3 weeks in a darkened incubator adjusted to 24 °C, tuberization response was evaluated. Orthogonal contrasts revealed significant differences between induced and noninduced controls for tuber number, diameter, and fresh mass. BAS-111 reduced rhizome length and increased tuber number, diameter, and fresh mass. GA3 increased rhizome length, but reduced tuber number, diameter, and fresh mass. Node location influenced tuber development, as basal explants produced significantly more and larger tubers, as well as longer rhizomes, than did apical explants, and subapical segments produced more and larger tubers than did apical segments. There were no significant differences between medial and basal nodal segments with respect to tuber number or tuber/rhizome size. Chemical names used: 1-phenoxy-5,5-dimethyl-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-hexan-5-ol (BAS-111); 2,4a,7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-carboxylic acid 1->4 lactone (GA3).

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Yin-Tung Wang

). Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis perform crassulacean acid metabolism to fix CO 2 primarily during the dark period of the day ( Guo, 1999 ; Ota et al., 1991 ). Ota et al. (1991) reported that at a common 20 °C nighttime temperature, increasing daytime

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Michael Evans, Curt Rom, Edward E. Gbur Jr., Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

). Nearly half of California’s spinach is grown in Monterey County, and although spinach can be grown there nearly year-round, production is limited to the regions and seasons that meet the temperature requirements of spinach ( Koike et al., 2011 ). In

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Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, José X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller, and Robert E. Rouse

The climate where fruit is grown can affect many different aspects of growth and development, including shape. Several reports have been published for fruit other than peaches concerning climatic and temperature effects on fruit shape. In general

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Elzbieta U. Kozik and Todd C. Wehner

planted in North Carolina ( North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2004 ). The land devoted to watermelon production in North Carolina from 1994 to 2004 ranged from 3238 to 4616 ha ( Arney et al., 2006 ). Temperatures below 10 °C

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W. J. Clore, G. H. Carter, and S. R. Drake


Factors determined to have a pronounced effect on shear-press peak-force values of asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. included sample size, spear diameter, length of green, and preharvest temperature. Shear-press values were greater following periods of cold weather in early spring. Larger diameter spears had lower peak-force values than smaller spears, indicating that larger spears are more tender than smaller spears. The number and diameter of spears produced by a particular cultivar, and not differences between cultivars, were the characteristics observed to influence shear-press values. Shear-press max peak-force values correlated well with subjective and objective determinations of asparagus fiber.

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Thierry E. Besançon

that a temperature of at least 22 °C was required for >90% cranberry seed germination. We hypothesize that openings in the cranberry canopy may induce changes in the local environmental conditions that may be favorable to the germination of cranberry

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Ajay Nair and Mathieu Ngouajio

strategies ( Snapp et al., 2005 ). Unpredictable climatic conditions in the Great Lakes region such as high rainfall, low temperatures, and humid conditions early in the growing season delay planting and facilitate early and rapid infestation of pest and

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S. M. Southwick, K. Shackel, and J. T. Yeager

49 ORAL SESSION 12 (Abstr. 081-087) Tree Fruits and Nuts: Water and Temperature Stress