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Marianela Ramirez, Marek J. Krasowski, and Judy A. Loo

difficulties, including high initial contamination of tissue cultures, low rooting success, and failure to establish cultures in the soil ( Barker et al., 1997 ; Simpson, 2001 ; K. Ellis, unpublished data). Contamination can be reduced by resterilizing the

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Bohan Liu and Peter J. Landschoot

source of P loading of the Chesapeake Bay ( USEPA, 2010 ), fertilizer practices in urban and suburban areas are receiving more attention as a source of P contamination ( Milesi et al., 2005 ; Schueler, 2010 ; Soldat and Petrovic, 2008 ). In response to

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Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith, and Michael Cahn

Concern over nitrate contamination in drinking water has led to increased regulatory scrutiny of N fertilizer use by regional water quality agencies. A recent assessment of nitrate in groundwater for two of the most intensive agricultural production

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Timothy K. Hartz, P. R. Johnstone, E. Williams, and R.F. Smith

wide range in soil characteristics and environmental conditions that characterize a regional industry. Furthermore, the interaction among the various macro- and micronutrients is not easily captured by traditional fertilizer trials. An alternative

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

soil and agricultural chemicals ( Steinmetz et al., 2016 ); therefore, most plastic mulch is disposed of in landfills. Many small-scale and organic farmers opt not to use plastic mulch because of disposal problems and concerns about soil contamination

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M. Lenny Wells

leach downward in the soil profile, thereby reducing groundwater contamination and increasing nutrient use efficiency in the system ( Rowe et al., 1999 ). Allen et al. (2004) demonstrated that pecan tree roots reduced N leaching in a cotton-pecan alley

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Ty A. McClellan, Roch E. Gaussoin, Robert C. Shearman, Charles S. Wortmann, Martha Mamo, Garald L. Horst, and David B. Marx

turfgrass use, maintenance, and performance. Inadequate or excessive soil nutrient levels can lead to problems in turfgrass health, vigor, and quality ( Beard, 1973 ; Turner and Hummel, 1992 ). Putting greens comprise ≈1.6% of the total golf course area

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Gilbert Miller, Ahmad Khalilian, Jeffrey W. Adelberg, Hamid J. Farahani, Richard L. Hassell, and Christina E. Wells

Plant roots play a vital role in the acquisition of belowground resources, yet we have a limited understanding of how they function in natural soil environments ( Smit et al., 2000 ). Both agricultural and non-agricultural water use is increasing

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Shaun R. Broderick and Williams B. Evans

biosolids may result in soil P concentrations that exceed plant requirements ( Lu et al., 2012 ). In addition, agricultural soil with excessive phosphorus can lead to P contamination of surface waters ( Sharpley et al., 1993 ). In the United States, ≈60% of

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Rebecca Nelson Brown and Josef H. Gorres

. (1974) recommended annual fertilization with biosolids to the Rhode Island Department of Transportation in the 1970s. However, concerns about heavy metal contamination of soil and water have limited the use of biosolids as a fertilizer. Biosolids can